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Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering

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Genetic Engineering

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  1. Genetic Engineering “Amazing Schemes Within Your Genes”

  2. What is genetic engineering? Moving small pieces of DNA from one organism into another organism

  3. What is recombinant DNA technology? • Same thing as genetic engineering • Recombinant DNA – made by connecting (splicing) fragments of DNA from different sources

  4. How does recombinant DNA work? • DNA is inserted into an organism • Organism uses foreign DNA as if it were its own

  5. Transgenic organisms contain recombinant DNA (initial + “foreign”) What are these new things called?

  6. How do scientists move DNA (genes) to make transgenic organisms? • Isolate source of foreign DNA to be inserted • Join DNA with a vehicle that can transport it • Transfer DNA (from chromosomes) into new host

  7. How is DNA isolated? Restriction enzymes are used

  8. What are restriction enzymes? • Proteins that come from bacteria • They recognize, bind to and cut DNA into smaller fragments at certain points • >200 different enzymes • Examples are: EcoRI, HinD III, Bam HI, Bgl II

  9. Isolate source of DNA • Ex: EcoRI – cuts between G and A whenever it sees CTTAAG A G G T C T T A A G C T A G C T C C A G A A T T C G A T C G

  10. Isolate source of DNA • Don’t cut straight through both DNA strands • Cut is offset by a few bases • “Sticky” ends are produced C T T A A G G A A T T C C T T A A G G A A T T C

  11. Isolate source of DNA Ex: AluI – cuts between C and G whenever it sees AGCT A G C T T C G A A G C T T C G A • “Blunt” ends are produced

  12. Isolate source of DNA Sticky Ends • DNA can form circle because complementary bases OR • DNA can pair with any other DNA fragment cut by the same enzyme (same bases exposed) = Recombinant DNA

  13. REFRESHER: How do scientists move DNA (genes)? • Isolate source of DNA Answer: through Restriction Enzymes • Join DNA to a vehicle that can transport it Answer: ??? • Transfer DNA (from chromosomes) into target cell Answer: ???

  14. Join DNA to a transport vehicle Vector – means by which DNA from one organism gets to target/host cell

  15. Types of Vectors • Mechanical • Micropipette inserted into cell • Gene gun shoots tiny metal bullet coated w/ DNA • Biological • Virus • Plasmid

  16. What is a plasmid? A small ring of DNA found in bacteria, which only carries genes under extreme circumstances Both plasmid and foreign DNA are cleaved w/ same restriction enzyme They are spliced using a “glue” called a ligase (enzyme)

  17. How do we know if foreign DNA has been successfully transferred? • Host cell copies recombinant DNA and its own DNA • Clones are created as host continues to divide (all w/ desired DNA) • Foreign DNA codes for the production of a specific protein – test the cloned cells to see if they produce protein or not

  18. And the final product is… • Newly recombined DNA that undergoes mitosis, producing multiple copies of new DNA • Bacteria is considered a good host because it reproduces quickly

  19. Genetically Engineered