genetics and genetic engineering l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Genetics and Genetic Engineering PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Genetics and Genetic Engineering

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 55

Genetics and Genetic Engineering - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 117 Views
  • Uploaded on

Genetics and Genetic Engineering. terms. agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments . centrifuge. device for separating substances on the basis of density. clones.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Genetics and Genetic Engineering


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
terms
terms
  • agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments
centrifuge
centrifuge
  • device for separating substances on the basis of density
clones
clones
  • organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source
complementary
complementary
  • containing structures that match or bond with related structures
electrophoresis
electrophoresis
  • technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field
excise
Excise
  • to remove a part by a process similar to cutting
expression
Expression
  • the appearance of a trait directed by a gene
genetic code
Genetic code
  • a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction
genetic engineering
Genetic Engineering
  • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
genetics
Genetics
  • science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another
slide12
Host
  • a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source
hybrid
Hybrid
  • offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup
ligase
Ligase
  • enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA
molecular weight
Molecular weight
  • sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule
mutation
Mutation
  • a heritable change in genetic makeup
nucleotides
Nucleotides
  • building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base
plasmid
Plasmid
  • a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA
polymerase
Polymerase
  • an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid
recombinant dna
Recombinant DNA
  • DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering
restriction enzyme
Restriction enzyme
  • restriction endonuclease
  • enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites
sequence
sequence
  • order of nucleotides or amino acids
template
template
  • a pattern used for developing a complementary structure
trait
trait
  • a characteristic resulting from gene expression
transform
transform
  • to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA
vector
vector
  • an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell
living material
Living material
  • Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction
complex organism
Complex Organism
  • higher organism
  • an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit
  • ex. Plants, animals, humans
organ
Organ
  • arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism
  • leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps.
tissue
Tissue
  • arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ
slide31
Cell
  • smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes
basic cell structures
Basic Cell structures
  • cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact
cell membrane
cell membrane
  • delicate structure that surrounds the cell
chloroplasts
chloroplasts
  • site of photosynthesis in plant cells
  • contain some DNA
cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
  • cell fluid containing all cell structures
nucleus
Nucleus
  • control center of a cell
  • contains most of the DNA
chromosomes
Chromosomes
  • structures that are physical carriers of genes
  • made p of DNA
  • are located in cell nucleus
mitochondria
Mitochondria
  • energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm
  • contain some DNA
plasmid39
Plasmid
  • extra chromosomal piece of DNA
  • located in the cell cytoplasm
ribosome
Ribosome
  • site where new proteins are produced
  • result of genetic expression
cell reproduction
Cell reproduction
  • mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells
  • increases by simple division
  • chromosomes remain paired during cell division
meiosis
meiosis
  • occurs in reproductive cells (gametes)
meiosis43
meiosis
  • increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual
meiosis44
meiosis
  • one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair
  • each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes
genetic engineering45
Genetic engineering
  • technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule
genetic engineering46
Genetic engineering
  • movement of a gene from one organism to another
other names
Other names
  • recombinant DNA technology
  • recombinant DNA science
  • gene transfer
  • gene splicing gene cloning
naturally occurring
Naturally occurring
  • alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment
naturally occurring49
Naturally occurring
  • some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell
naturally occurring50
Naturally occurring
  • natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation
scientific gen eng
Scientific Gen eng.
  • Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another
scientific gen eng52
Scientific Gen eng.
  • Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources
scientific gen eng53
Scientific Gen eng.
  • Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites
  • cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms
scientific gen eng54
Scientific Gen eng.
  • The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms