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  1. The Learning Self:Effective Use of Technology in Learning Environments Haruna Tada

  2. Overview • Goals for the use of computers in learning (from Children and Computer Technology: Analysis and Recommendations) • Background of authors • Reading summaries • Examples of use of technology in the classroom • examples of implementations • group exercise – design a classroom activity that uses some of highlighted technology Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 2

  3. Children and Computer Technology:Analysis and Recommendations(Shields & Behrman, 2000) • children acquire the skills necessary to use the technology effectively and responsibly • provide training for teachers and parents to understand what contents are out there and what is age-appropriate • reduce disparities in computer access between rich and poor communities • computers in classrooms should be used to add value to traditional curriculum and to teach things that were otherwise not possible • children use computers to create, design, invent, and to collaborate Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 3

  4. Who is Seymour Papert? • Born and raised in South Africa • 1954 – 1958: Studied mathematics at Cambridge University • 1958 – 1963: Worked with Jean Piaget at Univ. of Geneva • 1963 ~ : MIT, founding faculty member of Artificial Intelligence Lab and MIT Media Lab • Currently lives in Maine • Learning Barn • Maine Youth Center in Portland • Research activities and contributions: • technologies for providing new ways to learn • MaMaMedia.com • LEGO Mindstorms Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 4

  5. Who is Mitchel Resnick? • 1978: BA in Physics from Princeton • 1988, 1992: MS and PhD in Comp. Sci. at MIT • Currently the LEGO Papert Associate Professor of Learning Research at MIT Media Lab • Research Activities and contributions: • new ways of learning using technology • LEGO Programmable bricks • StarLOGO • Computer Clubhouse Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 5

  6. Mindstorms (Papert, 1980) • Computer as a tool for putting children in control of their own learning • Children “build their own intellectual structures with materials drawn from the surrounding culture.” Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 6

  7. Computer Criticism vs. Technocentric Thinking (Papert, 1987) • New technology affects multiple aspects of educational and social culture • “Technocentricism” – the tendency to place all emphasis on technology and not the people/method by which it is implemented • What matters is not introducing a new technology, but how you introduce the technology Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 7

  8. The Children’s Machine (Papert, 1993) • Comparison with Jean Piaget’s three developmental stages • sensorimotor stage (pre-school)children respond to immediate situation • stage of concrete operations (elementary school)period of concrete logic, but tied to specific situations • formal stage (highschool and on)logic, deduction, induction, and theory-building by verification and refutation Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 8

  9. The Children’s Machine (Papert, 1993) • Papert revisits concrete stage • strengthen the concrete process – “growing relevant mental entities and giving them connections” • focus on concrete stage not just as a transition between sensorimotor to formal stage, but as a model for learning anytime in one’s life • Teach in a way “to produce the most learning for the least teaching” Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 9

  10. Transmission, or Instructionist approach relies on books, lectures, and memorizing Using computers to assist transmission of knowledge drills and activities that replace paper-and-pencil type assignments Supporting evidence increase basic skills and improve standardized test scores Constructivist approach building students’ knowledge through experience, critical thinking and real-world connections Using computers to assist constructivist learning exchange of ideas with other students group project with students from different communities Supporting evidence increase the depth of understanding Instructionist vs. Constructivist Approaches Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 10

  11. Pianos Not Stereos: Creating Computational Construction Kits (Resnick, 1996) Two types of connections for effective learning: • personal: user’s interests, passions, and experiences • epistemological: new ways of thinking, new connections between ideas • Allow children to guide their own learning (personal connections), and trigger new areas of learning (epistemological connections) Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 11

  12. Examples from “Pianos Not Stereos” • LEGO Programmable bricks • lets LEGO objects be programmed to “react, behave, and collect data” • StarLOGO • simulates decentralized systems • how patterns (geometrical, behavioral, etc) emerge from interactions of many entities all behaving according to simple rules • MOOSE Crossing • multi-user virtual environment • children create objects, worlds, and interact with one another Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 12

  13. Examples from the Classroom • Four Examples: • Use of LEGO programmable brick in engineering • MOOSE Crossing to study survival • LOGO for studying insects • StarLOGO to model immune system response • Ask these questions: • Was this technology/tool appropriate for the lesson? • Did the use of technology add value to the traditional curriculum? • Did the technology help trigger any personal and/or epistemological connections in children? Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 13

  14. Example 1: LEGO Programmable Brick • “Capturing the Wind” • part of the Engineering/Technology curriculum • developed by CEEO at Tufts • for grades 5-8 Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 14

  15. Example 2: MOOSE Crossing • Use of MOOSE Crossing in a California public school • grades 4-5 • From a lesson on “survival”... • a class project to make a virtual “sinking ship” in MOOSE Crossing • each student assigned a room to design/describe (based on the Titanic) • connect rooms together according to the Titanic model Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 15

  16. Example 3: LOGO Programming Language • Insect project at Blake School • preK-12 private school • second grade classroom • study of milkweedbeetles lead to thedevelopment ofcomputer lessonusing LOGO Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 16

  17. Example 4: StarLOGO • Cancer and Stem-Transplantation • developed by Univ. of Maine • for grades 5-12 • after learning in class about immune system and the types of cells involved in interactions, the students model the immune system using StarLOGO • what types of cells and agents (white blood cells, etc) are at work? • how do the different entities interact? • how do the human body react to cancer cells? Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 17

  18. Group Exercise: Design a Classroom Activity For the technology that is assigned to your group, design a lesson or project, and discuss: • Why is this technology/tool appropriate for the lesson? • How will you integrate the technology into the classroom? • How does the technology contribute to forming relevant personal and epistemological connections? • What specific skills or concepts does the technology help develop? • How does use of technology add value to the traditional curriculum? Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 18

  19. Some Useful Links • LOGO: • http://library.thinkquest.org/18446/eindex.shtml • http://el.www.media.mit.edu/groups/logo-foundation/index.html • StarLogo: • http://education.mit.edu/starlogo/ • LEGO Mindstorms & Programmable bricks: • http://www.lego.com/dacta/products/robotics.asp • MOOSE Crossing: • www.cc.gatech.edu/elc/moose-crossing/ Tufts University  Fall 2002  CD-143 Technologies of the Self  The Learning Self 19