Predator-prey interactions: lecture content. Predator-prey interactions often dramatic, illustrated by snowshoe hare-lynx population fluctuations Simple Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model generates fluctuations of prey, predator
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One of the most famous examples of predator-prey interactions illustrated by Canada lynx and snowshoe hare, in Canadian taiga (forest) biome
Note regular periodicity, and lag by lynx population peaks just after hare peaks
Batesian mimicry of wasp (unpalatable model, upper left) by (1) mantispid (Neuroptera, palatable mimic, upper right), and (2) moth (palatable mimic, lower); (Ricklefs 2001)
Ventral view of Choeradodis rhombicolis mantid, Costa Rica: Prothoracic flap (shield-like structure just behind head) causes 10-fold increase in handling time by Costa Rican nunbirds (large-insect predator), based on experiment by T. Sherry (Photo by T. Sherry)
Catalepsis in Costa Rican katydids: See two insects along leaf veins (arrows), with only one pair of legs protruding out of allignment with rest of body (photo by T.W. Sherry)
Bombadier beetle (Bradinus crepitans) spraying boiling hot acid at predator; note also aposematic coloration (Photo by Thomas Eisner, Cornell University)
Impact of birds as predators on caterpillars in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH (Holmes, Schultz, and Nothnagle, 1972); asterisks indicate significant differences between treatments
Sea otters control abundance of sea urchins, sea urchins of kelp beds (& orcas of sea otters!)
Ratio of density of hares in treatment versus controls for separate and combined treatment effects; note by far the greatest effect of combined treatments (C)
Acknowledgements: Most illustrations for this lecture from R.E. Ricklefs. 2001. The Economy of Nature, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.