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Mimicry Is An Outcome of Predator-Prey Interactions. If a potential prey species develops an effective defense system, other unprotected prey species may come to mimic the protected species. . This is Batsian mimicry.

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Mimicry Is An Outcome of Predator-Prey Interactions

If a potential prey species develops an effective defense system, other unprotected prey species may come to mimic the protected species.

This is Batsian mimicry.

One (of many) examples of Batsian mimicry: the stinging yellow jacket and its harmless mimic, the clearwing moth.

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Batsian Mimicry

Disturbed hawkmoth larva. Snake

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Mimicry Is An Outcome of Predator-Prey Interactions

If a group of potential prey species develops an effective defense, the different species may coevolve to resemble one other.

This is Mullerian mimicry.

One example of Mullerian mimicry: the stinging yellow jacket and the stinging cicada-killer wasp – both are noxious.

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Mullerian Mimicry

Two noxious species of South American butterfly.

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The oxpecker gets food (ticks and insects disturbed in the grass) and a safe haven from the rhinoceros, and the rhinoceros has parasites (ticks) removed.

Mutualism

Mutualism occurs when species interact in a mutually beneficial manner.

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Mutualism

Mycorrhizal fungi (threads) covering aspen roots: fungi aid in water and nutrient absorption by the aspen and the aspen provides sugars and other food molecules to the fungi.

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Succession after the Yellowstone fires.

Succession at Mt. St. Helens.

Ecological Succession

Ecological succession is the set of changes in community composition that occur over time in a new or disturbed community.

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Retreating Glaciers at Glacier Bay Alaska Make It a Natural Laboratory for Studying Primary Succession

Primary succession occurs when organisms colonize a barren environment.

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Primary Succession at Glacier Bay, Alaska

A climax community is the stable community at the final stage of succession.

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Succession

Succession shows some general trends that include:

1) Biomass increase over time.

2) An increase in the number and proportion of longer-lived species.

3) Increased species diversity.

Succession on Mt. St. Helens – another site of intense study.

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Biodiversity

There are many measures of biodiversity.

Considering species diversity, more diverse communities tend to be more productive.

The role of diversity in community stability is less clear.

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Biodiversity

Remember, however, that this is one set of communities.

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Why Worry About the Relationship Between Biodiversity and Community Stability?

Because this understanding is essential for knowing how many species and of what types can be lost before a community collapses.

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Biodiversity Varies Naturally

There is a trend towards more species in warmer, wetter areas and fewer in colder and drier areas.

Numbers of bird species occupying areas of North America.