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How Species Interact With Eachother. Figure 53.1. Community Group of species living close enough together for potential interaction. Predation. A Predator eats the Prey Predator adaptations Locate & subdue prey Prey adaptations Elude & defend. Competition.

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How Species Interact With Eachother


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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Figure 53.1

  • Community
    • Group of species living close enough together for potential interaction
predation
Predation
  • A Predator eats the Prey
  • Predator adaptations
    • Locate & subdue prey
  • Prey adaptations
    • Elude & defend
slide4

Competition

  • Species competing for the same limited resource.
  • Competitive Exclusion Principle
    • One species will outcompete the other, driving one to extinction in the ecosystem
parasitism
Parasitism
  • Parasite lives on or in its host organism
  • Parasites generally to do not immediately kill their host
symbiosis

Figure 53.9

Symbiosis
  • Mutualism(+/+)
    • Lichens (algae & fungus)
    • Ant and Acacia Tree
  • Commensalism (+/0)
    • Barnacles attached to a whale
aposematic coloration
Aposematic coloration
  • Bright warning to predators
batesian mimicry

(b) Green parrot snake

(a) Hawkmoth larva

Figure 53.7a, b

Batesian mimicry
  • Palatable or harmless species mimics a harmful model
m llerian mimicry

(a) Cuckoo bee

(b) Yellow jacket

Figure 53.8a, b

Müllerian mimicry
  • Two or more unpalatable species look like each other
what kind of mimicry
What kind of mimicry?

Red next to yellow, kill

A fellow

Red next to black,

Friend to Jack

concept check
Concept Check!
  • According to the competitive exclusion principle, what outcome is expected when two species with identical niches compete for a resource? Why?
species diversity

A

B

C

D

Community 1

A: 25% B: 25% C: 25% D: 25%

Community 2

Figure 53.11

A: 80% B: 5% C: 5% D: 10%

Species diversity
  • Greater diversity = greater stability
trophic structure

Quaternary consumers

Carnivore

Carnivore

Tertiary consumers

Carnivore

Carnivore

Secondary consumers

Carnivore

Carnivore

Primary consumers

Zooplankton

Herbivore

Primary producers

Plant

Phytoplankton

Figure 53.12

A marine food chain

A terrestrial food chain

Trophic structure
  • Food chains
    • Feeding relationships
    • Limited to 4 or 5 trophic levels
    • Length of food chain limited by inefficiency of energy transfer
food webs

Humans

Smaller toothed whales

Baleen whales

Sperm whales

Elephant

seals

Leopard

seals

Crab-eater seals

Squids

Fishes

Birds

Carnivorous

plankton

Copepods

Euphausids

(krill)

Phyto-plankton

Figure 53.13

Food webs
  • Food chains are hooked together into food webs
  • Who eats whom?
    • A species may weave into a food web at more than 1 trophic level
limits on food chain length
Limits on food chain length
  • Energetic hypothesis
    • Limited by inefficiency of energy transfer
    • 10%
  • Dynamic stability hypothesis
    • Long chains less stable
    • Pop. fluctuations at lower levels magnified at higher levels
community structure
Community structure
  • Removing a species changes the community
  • Dominant species
    • Most abundant species or highest biomass in community
  • Keystone species
    • Exert important regulating effect on other species in a community
disturbances

Figure 53.21a–c

(a)Before a controlled burn.A prairie that has not burned forseveral years has a high propor-tion of detritus (dead grass).

(c)After the burn. Approximately one month after the controlled burn, virtually all of the biomass in this prairie is living.

(b)During the burn. The detritus serves as fuel for fires.

Disturbances
  • Most communities are in a state of non-equilibrium due to disturbances
    • Fire, weather, human activities, etc.
    • Not all are negative
ecological succession

(b) One year after fire. This photo of the same general area taken the following year indicates how rapidly the community began to recover. A variety of herbaceous plants, different from those in the former forest, cover the ground.

(a) Soon after fire. As this photo taken soon after the fire shows, the burn left a patchy landscape. Note the unburned trees in the distance.

Ecological Succession
  • The sequence of community & ecosystem changes after a disturbance
  • Transition in species composition over ecological time
succession
Succession
  • Primary
    • Begins in a virtually lifeless area without soil
  • Secondary
    • Existing community cleared, but soil is intact