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Native Americans. Broken Promises and a Trail of Tears. Native Americans Posed Problems for Western Settlement. Racism Viewed as backward savages/inferior in intelligence, technology, culture, morality Different=Inferior…skin color, language, religion and way of life

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native americans

Native Americans

Broken Promises and a Trail of Tears

native americans posed problems for western settlement
Native Americans Posed Problems for Western Settlement
  • Racism
    • Viewed as backward savages/inferior in intelligence, technology, culture, morality
    • Different=Inferior…skin color, language, religion and way of life
  • Ethnocentrism-Disrespect of Native Culture
    • Private ownership unknown to Natives, opens the door to exploitation
    • View of Indians as savages used as excuse to justify broken treaties, cheating, and slaughter
what was u s policy towards native americans
What was U.S. Policy towards Native Americans?
  • Initially friendly and cooperative and respectful…Lewis and Clark, etc.
  • Treaties promised independence, fair prices for some land, protection of sacred hunting grounds, cultural preservation, later relocation to lands that would be theirs “As long as grass grows and water runs”….
  • Treaties were violated, ignored, led to forced migration and ultimately slaughter for many
jackson and indian removal
Jackson and Indian Removal
  • Simple plan: relocate natives across West side of Mississippi River to “Indian Territory” in barren Oklahoma
  • Indian Removal Act of 1830, forced migration of over 70,000…in chains, little food, thin blankets in Winter.
  • Over a third died from cold, starvation disease and exhaustion…known as Trail of Tears
  • “A happy and certain consumation of a wise, humane, and undeviating policy”-US pres. Martin Van Buren
natives did not go quietly
Natives did NOT go quietly
  • Cherokees sued the U.S. government in Supreme Court for national independence and freedom from individual state laws. They won their case in Cherokee Nation V. Georgia.
  • Jackson refused to enforce the decision saying of the Chief Justice, “John Marshall has made his decision…Now let him enforce it.”
more acts of resistance
More Acts of Resistance
  • Failing to gain civil rights via court, numerous attempts were made to militarily protect sacred lands
    • Tecumseh travelled from Canada to Alabama attempting to organize a military alliance of all tribes…rubbed out at battle of Tippecanoe
    • Black Hawk defeated in Black Hawk War
    • Other tribes attempted to form military coalitions but were unsuccessful
what advantages did whites have
What Advantages did Whites have?
  • Weaponry
  • Agricultural output/food
  • Manufactured goods-used to trade for land
  • Alcohol, used as weapon against Indians
  • Immunity to European diseases
  • Political organization…Whites organized under governments and militias while Indians were not organized
modern indian issues
Modern Indian Issues
  • Poor Health-malnutrition, infant mortality, 50-year life expectancy
  • Poor education, high illiteracy
  • Poverty
  • Alcoholism
  • Still battling racism
  • Lack of Social Services
  • No official apologies for past treatment