Designing Questionnaires for Children and Young People - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Designing Questionnaires for Children and Young People

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  1. Designing Questionnaires for Children and Young People Alice Bell Families and Children Group National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) Royal College of Nursing Conference ‘Consulting with Children and Young People’ Friday 9th June 2006

  2. Session outline • Quantitative and qualitative research • When to use questionnaires with children and young people • Designing questions for children and young people - the Question and Answer Model • Question testing techniques • Interactive quiz!

  3. Quantitative Qualitative Two types of research

  4. Quantitative Fixed (questionnaires) Qualitative Flexible (e.g. topic guides) Two types of research

  5. Quantitative Fixed (questionnaires) Incidence & prevalence Qualitative Flexible (e.g. topic guides) Reasons & explanation Two types of research

  6. Quantitative Fixed (questionnaires) Incidence & prevalence Representative sample Qualitative Flexible (e.g. topic guides) Reasons & explanation Purposive sample Two types of research

  7. Quantitative Fixed (questionnaires) Incidence & prevalence Representative sample Data ordered & numerical Qualitative Flexible (e.g. topic guides) Reasons & explanation Purposive sample Data disorderly & rich Two types of research

  8. Choosing an appropriate methodology (1) • Traditional leaning towards using qualitative techniques with children and young people • Quantitative research widely considered feasible from age 7… • …but age only a rough proxy for various aspects of ‘development’

  9. Choosing an appropriate methodology (2) • Be clear about your research questions • Identify your population • Consider time and budget • Quant and qual in combination?

  10. Range of quantitative options • Face-to-face interviewing (paper or computer-assisted) • Telephone interviewing (paper or computer-assisted) • Self-completion questionnaires (paper or computer-based - including online)

  11. Question-Answer Model Comprehend question Respond Retrieve information Judge (Tourangeau 1984)

  12. Comprehension • Vocabulary • Question length • Ambiguity • Double-barrelled questions • Depersonalised/indirect questions • Complex constructions • Negative questions • Suggestively phrased questions

  13. Retrieval • Level of recall • Complexity of retrieval process • Reference periods

  14. Judgement • Filtering responses - social desirability • Context effects • ‘No right or wrong answers’ • Sensitive questions and topics

  15. Response • Number of response categories • Ordering of response categories • Scales and labels • Explicit vs implicit ‘Don’t Know’s • Showcards

  16. Question testing • Sometimes called ‘cognitive testing’ • Used to revise and refine questionnaire • In-depth interviews; retrospective probing and ‘think-aloud’ techniques • Other options: expert appraisal, focus groups, observation

  17. Question testing - example (1) Do you have a personal computer (PC) at home? (Tick one box) Yes No

  18. Question testing - example (1) revised Do you or your family have a computer at home? (Tick one box) Yes No

  19. Question testing - example (2) How often, if ever, are you punished at school e.g. detention, sent to see the head teacher, sent out of the classroom? Never Rarely Sometimes Often

  20. Question testing - example (2) revised In the last four weeks, how many times have you been punished at school? Never Once or twice Three or more times