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ALIEN ENCOUNTERS: EUROPE IN THE AMERICAS. Columbus and the Discovery of America Christopher Columbus reached the West Indies on October 12, 1492 by the fifteenth century, western Europeans discover direct routes to the East

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alien encounters europe in the americas
ALIEN ENCOUNTERS: EUROPE IN THE AMERICAS
  • Columbus and the Discovery of America
    • Christopher Columbus reached the West Indies on October 12, 1492
    • by the fifteenth century, western Europeans discover direct routes to the East
    • Prince Henry of Portugal sponsored improvements in navigation and voyages of exploration
slide2
Spain’s American Empire
    • in 1493, Pope divided the non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal
    • Portugal concentrated on Africa and Brasil
    • Spain concentrated on the Caribbean and Americas
  • The Indian and the European
    • European technological superiority, particularly in instruments of war, provided the tools for domination
slide3
Relativity of Cultural Values
    • Europeans regarded as heathens because the did not worship the Christian God
    • most Indians were deeply religious
    • some Europeans believed Indians were minions of Satan, unworthy of Christianity
    • some, such as Spanish friars attempted to convert them
    • Indians exploited the land as Europeans did
slide4
fished, hunted, & modified vegetation and wildlife
  • different approaches to land and government led to conflict
  • even in warfare, the two cultures differed
  • Indians fought to display valor, avenge insult, or to acquire captives
  • Europeans fought with the intent to obliterate the enemy
slide5
Disease and Population Losses
    • Europeans brought with them diseases for which Indians had no immunities, particularly smallpox and measles
    • these diseases devastated Indian populations
  • Spain’s European Rivals
    • Spain dominated exploration of the Americas during 16th century due to its internal stability
    • but corruption over gold and silver began to erode this stability and the disruption of the Catholic church undermined Spanish power
slide6
The Protestant Reformation
    • the sale of indulgences and the luxurious life-styles of popes led to a challenge by reformers such as Martin Luther and John Calvin
    • in England, Henry VIII’s search for a male heir led him to split from Rome when the Pope refused him a divorce
slide7
English Beginnings in America
    • Queen Elizabeth supported the explorations of English joint-stock companies and encouraged privateers, such as Sir Francis Drake, to plunder Spanish merchant shipping
    • she supported colonization of New World
    • in 1587Sir Walter Raleigh settled Roanoke Island
    • after the Spanish Armada was destroyed, Spain could not stop English colonization of New World
slide8
The Settlement of Virginia
    • London Company established first permanent English settlement in America at Jamestown in 1607
    • half the settlers died during first winter because of mismanagement, ignorance of environment, and scarcity of people skilled in manual labor and agriculture
    • London Company encouraged useless pursuits such as searching for gold rather than building a settlement
slide9
settlement survived in part because Captain John Smith recognized the importance of building houses and raising food
  • aid from Native Americans
  • settlers’ realization that they must produce their own food and the introduction of tobacco as a cash crop saved the colony
  • James I revoked the company’s charter in 1624, and Virginia became a royal colony
slide10
“Purifying” the Church of England
    • Under Elizabeth I, the Church of England became the official church
    • Elizabeth I’s “middle way”
    • Catholics who could not reconcile themselves left the country
    • others practiced their faith in private
    • other sects of Protestantism formed
slide11
Puritans who objected to the rich vestments, the use of candles, and the use of music in services; Puritans’ belief in predestination also set them apart from the Anglican church
  • Some Puritans, later called Congregationalists, also favored autonomy for individual churches
  • Others, called Presbyterians, favored an organization that emanated up from the churches rather than down from the top
  • Puritan fears that James I leaned towards Catholicism further alienated them from the Anglican church
slide12
Bradford and Plymouth Colony
    • English Separatists set sail from Plymouth, England, on the Mayflower to settle near the northern boundary of Virginia
    • since they were outside jurisdiction of London Company, they drew up the Mayflower Compact
    • a mutually agreed upon covenant that established a set of political rules
    • they elected William Bradford their first governor
slide13
Winthrop and Massachusetts Bay Colony
    • a group of Puritans formed the Massachusetts Bay Company
    • obtained a grant to the area between the Charles and Merrimack rivers
    • they founded Boston in 1630
    • elected John Winthrop governor
    • founders established an elected legislature
    • voters and members of the legislature had to be members of the church
    • Under Charles I, Puritans were persecuted in England, and the Great Migration of Puritans to Massachusetts Bay took place in the 1630s
slide14
Troublemakers
    • Several groups dissented from the Massachusetts Bay colony
    • Roger Williams opposed alliance of church and civil government and championed the fair treatment of Indians
    • Banished from the colony, he founded the town of Providence and later established the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation
slide15
Anne Hutchinson preached that those possessed of saving grace were exempt from rules of good behavior
  • General Court charged Hutchinson with defaming the clergy, brought her to trial, and banished her
  • Hutchinson and her followers left Massachusetts for Rhode Island in 1637
slide16
Other New England Colonies
    • Congregations from Massachusetts settled in the Connecticut River valley
    • a group headed by Reverend Thomas Hooker founded Hartford in 1836
    • their instrument of government, the Fundamental Orders
    • did not limit voting to church members
slide17
French and Dutch Settlements
    • England was not alone in challenging Spain's dominance in the New World.
    • French planted colonies in the West Indies and, through the explorations of Cartier and Champlain, laid claim to much of the Saint Lawrence River area
    • Dutch also established themselves in the Caribbean and founded the colony of New Netherland in the Hudson Valley
slide18
Maryland and the Carolinas
    • in 17th century, English colonization shifted to proprietary efforts
    • proprietors hoped to obtain profit and political power
    • Maryland was one of the first proprietary colonies
    • established under a grant to the Calvert family
    • Lord Baltimore hoped not only to profit but to create a refuge for Catholics
slide19
Catholics remained a minority in the colony, and Baltimore agreed to the Toleration Act
  • guaranteed freedom of religion to all Christians
  • in what is now known as the Carolinas, proprietors, with the help of John Locke, drafted a plan of government called Fundamental Constitutions
  • two separate societies emerged in Carolina
  • north was poorer and more primitive
  • Charleston colony to the south developed an economy based on trade in fur and on the export of foodstuffs
slide20
The Middle Colonies
    • British eventually ousted the Dutch from New Amsterdam, which became New York
    • Quakers settled in New Jersey and Pennsylvania and there they drafted an extremely liberal constitution that guaranteed settlers freedom of conscience
    • William Penn, proprietor of Pennsylvania, treated the Indians fairly and permitted freedom of worship to all who believed in God; Penn’s ideas were more paternalistic than democratic
slide21
Indians and Europeans as “Americanizers”
    • relationship between Native Americans and Europeans best characterized as interactive
    • Indians taught colonists how to grow food, what to wear, and new forms of transportation
    • Native Americans adopted European technology (especially weapons), clothing, and alcohol
    • out of the interaction between cultures came something new and distinctively American