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The Great War. Europe at its peak. Technologically advanced Industrial sectors: steel, coal, railways 25% of world’s population Domination of Africa & Asia (imperialism) Modernization promoted Social Darwinism. Nationalism. Idea that one nation is superior to others Ethnic tension

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Europe at its peak l.jpg
Europe at its peak

  • Technologically advanced

  • Industrial sectors: steel, coal, railways

  • 25% of world’s population

  • Domination of Africa & Asia (imperialism)

  • Modernization promoted Social Darwinism


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Nationalism

  • Idea that one nation is superior to others

  • Ethnic tension

  • Homogeneous populations united

    • Slavic people, German people, Italian people


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Leaders & Their Empires

  • Emperor and King of Austria-Hungary

    • Franz Josef

  • Nephew to rule next

    • Franz Ferdinand

  • Domestic discontent in Austria-Hungary


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King George of England

  • Britain had largest navy in the world

  • Empire 140 x’s the size of the island

  • Uneasy about growing military in Germany and with German ties to the Ottoman Empire


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Tsar Nicolas II of Russia

  • Not industrialized

  • 6 million troops

  • Russia protector of the Slavs

    • Diverse population

    • Jews, Poles, Ukrainians


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Cousins in Alliance

  • Triple Entente: France, Russia, England (1907)



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Kaiser Wilhelm IIVision for Germany

  • Respectable Germany 1871

  • Strong Military and Trade System

  • Tension with France over Alsace Lorraine (5/11/1870)

    • Franco-Prussian War

  • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882)

  • Goal to isolate France



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The Balkans: The Powder Keg

  • Diverse group and strong nationalism

  • Ottoman receded and new nations born

    • Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Albania

  • Russia and Austria-Hungary competed for control of new nations

  • Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia in1908

  • Serbia resented this action because they had a large ethnically Serbian population


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The Shot: June 28, 1914

  • Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria

  • Wedding anniversary

  • Anniversary of Ottoman invasion

  • Parade planned in Sarajevo, Bosnia

  • 7 Serbian nationalists

    • Black Hand plot


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Gavrilo Princip

  • Bomb thrown at Parade

  • Rush to hospital

  • Café corner

  • Gavrilo Princip shot the Archduke and his wife Sophie - killing them both


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Austria-Hungary’s Ultimatum

  • Germany gave “blank check” of military support to Austria-Hungary

  • Austria- Hungary gave severe ultimatum to Serbia

  • Serbia refused to let Austria-Hungarian officials run an investigation in Serbia

  • Austria-Hungary declare war on Serbia


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Russia supported Serbia

France and Britain in alliance with Russia

Britain declares war on Germany

Germany supported Austria-Hungary

Germany declares war on Russia and France

The War to End all Wars begins

Alliances