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GV551-week 18. Peacekeeping operations Definitions Types Record of UN peacekeeping operations. Haiti (1994). First time that SC declared a coup against a democratically elected government threat to peace-right to intervene First intervention after Somalia (Somalian effect)

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GV551-week 18

Peacekeeping operations



Record of UN peacekeeping operations

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Haiti (1994)

  • First time that SC declared a coup against a democratically elected government threat to peace-right to intervene

  • First intervention after Somalia (Somalian effect)

  • Multiple failed mediations by foreign ministers, OAS envoys (ch. 15), UN envoy, and presidential envoys

  • Difficulty to combine diplomacy and force (humanitarian goals not national interest) although necessary

  • Unique model of mediation before the intervention: a former President, a Senator, and G. Powell (threat of enforcement)

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Lessons to be learned from Haiti (1994)

  • Addressing images of the enemy

  • Good mediators are able to listen and empathize with both sides

  • Autonomy and strength of mediators: positive or negative?

  • Deadlines dangerous but necessary

  • Once the major point has been reached then relax allowing for the other side to save face

  • Symbolic concessions to seal the agreement

  • Having an exit strategy

  • Critical distinction between use of force and threat of force

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Definitions of peacekeeping

  • Peacekeeping: observe a truce/cease-fire/keep parties apart

    • Method to manage conflict (first attempts under the League of Nations)

    • Often as a term is used to encompass military action against an aggressor: e.g. Korean war and first Gulf war

    • Peacekeeping combines elements of collective security and observation

  • Characteristics of peacekeeping:

    • Nonenforcement—noncoercive

    • Occupation but as an interposition between fighting parties

    • Limited military capability (light armaments—partly due to necessity)---strictly self-defence and deterrentthreat in case of demilitarisation and patrolling

    • Neutrality

      • Nonaligned states (e.f. Sweden, Pakistan, India, Fiji)

      • Issue of major powers (Cold War)

    • Permission of Host Countries

    • Ad hoc organizations under the UN auspices and certified by UN Security Council

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Peace making and peacebuilding

  • Peace making: bringing hostile parties to an agreement through peaceful means: mediation, adjudication

  • Peace enforcement: authorized act with or without the consent of the involved parties, mandated, and authorized by the Security Council—heavily armed and under the UN secretary-general (e.g. East Slavonia 1996, Sierra Leone 2000 (UK), Liberia (US))

  • Peacebuilding (Haiti, East Timor, Sierra Leone, Kosovo…): developing social, economic, and political structure and institutions to avoid conflict in the future

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Types of peacekeeping operations (PKOs)

  • 6 types depending on degree of involvement and the freedom to use force

  • From conflict management to conflict resolution

    • Types 1 & 2: traditional peacekeeping (neutrality et al: Cyprus, Kashmir 1948, Golan Heights)

    • Types 3 & 5: incorporate elements of peacebuilding, such as decommissioning (Guatemala, Sierra Leone, Kosovo), training of police forces, monitoring and organization of elections (Cambodia, East Timor/OSCE in Eurasia)

      • Type 5: enforcement issues

    • Preventive development of UN troops (FYMacedonia) (Article 1)

    • Type 6; full fledged peacebuilding (Haiti)

  • Problems of preventive UN operations

    • Developing countries’ fears of intrusion and loss of sovereignty

    • Selectivity of missions

    • Loss of funds from other projects

    • Issue of timing: when is prevention appropriate?

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Differences between peacekeeping and peacebuilding

  • Peacekeeping is operational, technical and focuses on quick results; peacebuilding is based on long-term planning and strategic management, and seeks sustainable outcomes.

  • Peacekeeping requires direct and outside intervention; peacebuilding develops local capacity.

  • Peacekeeping is guided by impartiality and equidistance from contending parties; peacebuilding requires an in-depth understanding of the socio-political situation, is participatory and actively engages local stakeholders.

  • Example Haiti:

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Origin of PKOs

  • Boxer wars in China (1900)

  • The creation of the League of Nations

    • Concept of collective security

      • No direct reference to peacekeeping but authorization to League of Nations to take action to safeguard peace

    • Problems:

      • The role of great powers

      • Lack of enforcement

        • Japanese attack against China (1931)—fact finding mission

        • Abyssinian crisis (1935)

      • Lack of interest in remote conflicts (the case of Czechoslovakia (1938))

      • What is an aggressor?

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The United Nations

  • Purpose: provide and international structure through which states can settle conflicts with the least possible use of force

  • Chapters 6 & 7

  • Korean war and the movement of non-aligned countries

  • Resolution 998 and Suez Canal Crisis (1956): beginnings of PKOs

  • 1960-1964: Congp (ONUC)

    • To ensure the withdrawal of Belgian forces from the Republic of the Congo

    • to assist the Government in maintaining law and order

    • to provide technical assistance

    • UNUC was authorized to use force

    • By resolution 169 (1961) of 24 November 1961, the Council authorized the Secretary-General "to take vigorous action, including the use of the requisite measure of force, if necessary, for the immediate apprehension, detention pending legal action and/or deportation of all foreign military and paramilitary personnel and political advisers not under United Nations Command, and mercenaries", as laid down in Council’s resolution 161 (1961).

  • Early 1990s: An Agenda for Peace (Boutros Boutros-Ghali): more ambitious role of the UN

    • Second and third generation PKOs