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Contaminants and coastal zones: insights from the ELOISE and IMPACTS projects Knut Breivik, Jozef M Pacyna and Kevin Barrett Center for Ecological Economics Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU)
1. Introduction – Overview of projects • Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) • ADIOS, AIRWIN, BIOCET, EROS-21, FAMIZ, POPCYCLING-BALTIC • Oil hydrocarbons • COMMODE, MATBIOPOL • Other • ACE (antifouling agents), SUB-GATE (methane) Projects part of the ELOISE cluster are given in italic, other projects belong to the IMPACTS cluster
2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project • The overall goal of the RTD project "POP-CYCLING-BALTIC" was to develop a comprehensive, multicompartmental model to study the fate and behaviour of POPs in the Baltic Sea environment (Pacyna et al 1999 ) • Specific objectives • understand and quantify the major sources, pathways and loss processes of the contaminants • establish a link between contaminant loadings and environmental concentrations • estimate the time response to loading reductions • interpret spatial patterns and temporal trends of the contamination
Model Region Atmosphere sources loss advective inflow advective outflow evaporation deposition deposition evaporation run-off loss loss Marine System Terrestrial System 2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project The POPCYCLING-Baltic Model aims to quantify the pathways of POPs from the terrestrial environment to the marine environment via atmosphere and rivers (Wania et al 2000) The model is freely available for download at www.scar.utoronto.ca/~wania
North atmosphere water forest East West forest soil agri- soil sediment South fresh water Air Mass Balance Water Mass Balance POC Mass Balance Contaminant Mass Balance 2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project Components of the model(Wania et al 2000) POC mass balance of the aquatic units water balance of the drainage basins water balance of the Baltic Sea
2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project Terrestrial Environment Marine Environment atmosphere forest canopy Contaminant fate processes included in the model (Wania et al 2000) forest soil agricultural soil fresh water coastal water open water fresh water sediment coastal sediment bottom water interphase transfer direct emission degradation loss advection with air and water bottom sediment
2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project Emission database for selected POPs in Europe (input to the model) g-HCH (135 000 t) a-HCH (259 000 t) Breivik et al 1999; Pacyna et al 2003
2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project Emission database for selected POPs in Europe (input to the model) Temporal trend in usage of HCHs in Europe; Breivik et al 1999
2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project Model evaluation for two HCHs (Hexachlorocyclohexanes)Breivik and Wania, 2002a a-HCH measured modelled g-HCH measured modelled Spatial patterns: measured (Gaul, 1992) and modelled surface water concentrations in ng/L during the summer of 1983 and 1988.
2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project Air concentrations Seawater concentrations a-HCH Breivik and Wania, 2002a g-HCH
2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project measured herring vs. modelled sea water concentrations (1987-1997) measured pike vs. modelled fresh water concentrations (1970-1996) Breivik and Wania, 2002a The model reproduces the time trends of a-HCH observed in air, sea water and fresh water fish. The decrease of g-HCH concentration predicted by the model occurs earlier than is observed in the environment.
2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project Relative Importance of HCH Sources Within and Outside of the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin a-HCH, 1970 to 2000 g-HCH, 1970 to 2000 emission 19.3 kt emission 4.5 kt Baltic Sea environment Baltic Sea environment atmospheric outflow 32.1 kt atmospheric outflow 9.6 kt atmospheric inflow 29.4 kt atmospheric inflow 9.5 kt oceanic outflow 0.6 kt oceanic outflow 0.6 kt oceanic inflow 0.5 kt oceanic inflow 0.5 kt • The model suggests that direct usage within the Baltic Sea drainage basin accounts for about 30 to 40 % of the total amount of HCHs entering this environment. The remainder is due to usage outside of the drainage basin. • The drainage basin as a whole is a net exporter of both a-HCH and g-HCH. • The relative importance of sources within the basin has decreased in time. • In the case of g-HCH, the contribution from sources within the drainage basin decreased from 40 to 10%. During the 1980s, the Baltic Sea region switched from being a net exporter to being a net recipient of g-HCH. Breivik and Wania, 2002b
2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project What did we accomplish? A quantitative picture of the long-term (decades) fate of a semi-volatile and persistent organic chemical in a large aquatic system and its drainage basin major reservoirs major pathways (e.g. riverine vs. atmospheric, vertical vs. horizontal) equilibrium status and flux direction importance of sources within vs. outside drainage basin time response in various media
Selected references Breivik K, Pacyna JM and Münch J, 1999. Use of a-, b- and g-hexachlorocyclohexane in Europe, 1970-1996. The Science of the Total Environment 239: 151-163. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC) Breivik K, Wania F, 2002a. Evaluating a Model of the Historical Behavior of Two Hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Baltic Sea Environment. Environmental Science and Technology 36: 1014-1023. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC) Breivik K, Wania F, 2002b. Mass Budgets, Pathways, and Equilibrium States of Two Hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Baltic Sea Environment. Environmental Science and Technology 36: 1024-1032. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC) García-Flor N, Guitart C, Bodineau L, Dachs J, Bayona JM, Albaiges J, 2004. Comparison of sampling devices for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in the sea surface microlayer. Marine Environmental Research 48: 961-968. (AIRWIN) Haugen J-E, Wania F, Lei YD, 1999. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Atmosphere of Southern Norway. Environmental Science and Technology 33: 2340-2345. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC) Maldonado C, Bayona JM, 2002. Organochlorine Compounds in the North-western Black Sea Water: Distribution and Water Column Process. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54: 527-540. (EROS-21)
Selected references Mandalakis M, Berresheim H, Stephanou EG, 2003. Direct Evidence for Destruction of Polychlorobiphenyls by OH Radicals in the Subtropical Troposphere. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 542-547. (ADIOS) Mandalakis M, Stephanou EG, 2004. Wet Deposition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Eastern Mediterranean. Environmental Science and Technology 38: 3011-3018. (ADIOS) Pacyna JM et al 1999. Final Report for Project Popcycling-Baltic. NILU, P.O. Box 100, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway. CD-rom. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC) Pacyna JM, Breivik K, Münch J, Fudala J 2003. European atmospheric emissions of selected persistent organic pollutants, 1970-1995. Atmospheric Environment 37, S119-S131 (POPCYCLING-BALTIC) Sinkkonen S, Paasivirta J, 2000. Degradation half-life times of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs for environmental fate modelling. Chemosphere 40: 943-949. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC) Wania F, Axelman J, Broman D, 1998. A review of processes involved in the exchange of persistent organic pollutants across the air-sea interface. Environmental Pollution 102: 3-23. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC) Wania F, Persson N, Di Guardo A and McLachlan MS, 2000. The POPCYCLING-Baltic Model. NILU OR 10/2000. ISBN 82-425-1159-4; Kjeller, Norway. 81 pp. (www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~wania). (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)