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Contaminants and coastal zones: insights from the ELOISE and IMPACTS projects. Knut Breivik, Jozef M Pacyna and Kevin Barrett Center for Ecological Economics Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). 1. Introduction – Overview of projects. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

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slide1

Contaminants and coastal zones: insights from the ELOISE and IMPACTS projects

Knut Breivik, Jozef M Pacyna and Kevin Barrett

Center for Ecological Economics Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU)

slide2

1. Introduction – Overview of projects

  • Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
    • ADIOS, AIRWIN, BIOCET, EROS-21, FAMIZ, POPCYCLING-BALTIC
  • Oil hydrocarbons
    • COMMODE, MATBIOPOL
  • Other
    • ACE (antifouling agents), SUB-GATE (methane)

Projects part of the ELOISE cluster are given in italic, other projects belong to the IMPACTS cluster

slide3

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

  • The overall goal of the RTD project "POP-CYCLING-BALTIC" was to develop a comprehensive, multicompartmental model to study the fate and behaviour of POPs in the Baltic Sea environment (Pacyna et al 1999 )
  • Specific objectives
    • understand and quantify the major sources, pathways and loss processes of the contaminants
    • establish a link between contaminant loadings and environmental concentrations
    • estimate the time response to loading reductions
    • interpret spatial patterns and temporal trends of the contamination
slide4

Model Region

Atmosphere

sources

loss

advective

inflow

advective

outflow

evaporation

deposition

deposition

evaporation

run-off

loss

loss

Marine System

Terrestrial System

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

The POPCYCLING-Baltic Model aims to quantify the pathways of POPs from the terrestrial environment to the marine environment via atmosphere and rivers (Wania et al 2000)

The model is freely available for download at www.scar.utoronto.ca/~wania

slide5

North

atmosphere

water

forest

East

West

forest

soil

agri-

soil

sediment

South

fresh water

Air Mass Balance

Water Mass Balance

POC Mass Balance

Contaminant Mass Balance

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

Components of the model(Wania et al 2000)

POC mass balance

of the aquatic units

water balance of the

drainage basins

water balance of

the Baltic Sea

slide6

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

Terrestrial Environment

Marine Environment

atmosphere

forest

canopy

Contaminant fate processes included in the model

(Wania et al 2000)

forest

soil

agricultural

soil

fresh water

coastal

water

open

water

fresh water sediment

coastal

sediment

bottom

water

interphase transfer

direct emission

degradation loss

advection with air and water

bottom

sediment

slide7

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

Emission database for selected POPs in Europe (input to the model)

g-HCH (135 000 t)

a-HCH (259 000 t)

Breivik et al 1999; Pacyna et al 2003

slide8

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

Emission database for selected POPs in Europe (input to the model)

Temporal trend in usage of HCHs in Europe; Breivik et al 1999

slide9

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

Model evaluation for two HCHs (Hexachlorocyclohexanes)Breivik and Wania, 2002a

a-HCH

measured

modelled

g-HCH

measured

modelled

Spatial patterns: measured (Gaul, 1992) and modelled surface water concentrations in ng/L during the summer of 1983 and 1988.

slide10

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

Air concentrations

Seawater concentrations

a-HCH

Breivik and Wania, 2002a

g-HCH

slide11

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

measured herring vs. modelled

sea water concentrations (1987-1997)

measured pike vs. modelled

fresh water concentrations (1970-1996)

Breivik and Wania, 2002a

The model reproduces the time trends of a-HCH observed in air, sea water and fresh water fish. The decrease of g-HCH concentration predicted by the model occurs earlier than is observed in the environment.

slide12

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

Relative Importance of HCH Sources Within and Outside of the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin

a-HCH, 1970 to 2000

g-HCH, 1970 to 2000

emission

19.3 kt

emission

4.5 kt

Baltic Sea

environment

Baltic Sea

environment

atmospheric

outflow

32.1 kt

atmospheric

outflow

9.6 kt

atmospheric

inflow

29.4 kt

atmospheric

inflow

9.5 kt

oceanic

outflow

0.6 kt

oceanic

outflow

0.6 kt

oceanic

inflow

0.5 kt

oceanic

inflow

0.5 kt

  • The model suggests that direct usage within the Baltic Sea drainage basin accounts for about 30 to 40 % of the total amount of HCHs entering this environment. The remainder is due to usage outside of the drainage basin.
  • The drainage basin as a whole is a net exporter of both a-HCH and g-HCH.
  • The relative importance of sources within the basin has decreased in time.
  • In the case of g-HCH, the contribution from sources within the drainage basin decreased from 40 to 10%. During the 1980s, the Baltic Sea region switched from being a net exporter to being a net recipient of g-HCH.

Breivik and Wania, 2002b

slide13

2. Case study: POPCYCLING-Baltic project

What did we accomplish?

A quantitative picture of the long-term

(decades) fate of a semi-volatile and persistent

organic chemical in a large aquatic system

and its drainage basin

major reservoirs

major pathways (e.g. riverine vs. atmospheric, vertical vs. horizontal)

equilibrium status and flux direction

importance of sources within vs. outside drainage basin

time response in various media

slide14

Selected references

Breivik K, Pacyna JM and Münch J, 1999. Use of a-, b- and g-hexachlorocyclohexane in Europe, 1970-1996. The Science of the Total Environment 239: 151-163. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)

Breivik K, Wania F, 2002a. Evaluating a Model of the Historical Behavior of Two Hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Baltic Sea Environment. Environmental Science and Technology 36: 1014-1023.  (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)

Breivik K, Wania F, 2002b. Mass Budgets, Pathways, and Equilibrium States of Two Hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Baltic Sea Environment. Environmental Science and Technology 36: 1024-1032. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)

García-Flor N, Guitart C, Bodineau L, Dachs J, Bayona JM, Albaiges J, 2004. Comparison of sampling devices for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in the sea surface microlayer. Marine Environmental Research 48: 961-968. (AIRWIN)

Haugen J-E, Wania F, Lei YD, 1999. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Atmosphere of Southern Norway. Environmental Science and Technology 33: 2340-2345. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)

Maldonado C, Bayona JM, 2002. Organochlorine Compounds in the North-western Black Sea Water: Distribution and Water Column Process. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54: 527-540. (EROS-21)

slide15

Selected references

Mandalakis M, Berresheim H, Stephanou EG, 2003. Direct Evidence for Destruction of Polychlorobiphenyls by OH Radicals in the Subtropical Troposphere. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 542-547. (ADIOS)

Mandalakis M, Stephanou EG, 2004. Wet Deposition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Eastern Mediterranean. Environmental Science and Technology 38: 3011-3018. (ADIOS)

Pacyna JM et al 1999. Final Report for Project Popcycling-Baltic. NILU, P.O. Box 100, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway. CD-rom. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)

Pacyna JM, Breivik K, Münch J, Fudala J 2003. European atmospheric emissions of selected persistent organic pollutants, 1970-1995. Atmospheric Environment 37, S119-S131 (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)

Sinkkonen S, Paasivirta J, 2000. Degradation half-life times of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs for environmental fate modelling. Chemosphere 40: 943-949. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)

Wania F, Axelman J, Broman D, 1998. A review of processes involved in the exchange of persistent organic pollutants across the air-sea interface. Environmental Pollution 102: 3-23. (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)

Wania F, Persson N, Di Guardo A and McLachlan MS, 2000. The POPCYCLING-Baltic Model. NILU OR 10/2000. ISBN 82-425-1159-4; Kjeller, Norway. 81 pp. (www.utsc.utoronto.ca/~wania). (POPCYCLING-BALTIC)