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Universal Primary Education Bratislava,  May 2007. Susie Miles School of Education, University of Manchester Enabling Education Network - EENET Overview. What is education? International Frameworks Millennium Development Goal: Education

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Universal Primary Education

Bratislava, May 2007

Susie Miles

School of Education, University of Manchester

Enabling Education Network - EENET

  • What is education?
  • International Frameworks
  • Millennium Development Goal: Education
  • Individual v social model of education
  • Promoting inclusive learning environments for all, Oriang, Kenya
  • Key issues in making education work
  • Definitions of inclusive education
  • UN Convention: the right to be included.
international frameworks
International frameworks

1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child

  • Jomtien, Thailand – EFA Education for All

1993 UN Standard Rules (on Disability)

1994 Salamanca Statement

2000 Dakar, Senegal, EFA Conference & Millennium Development Goals

2002 Fast Track Initiative (for EFA)

2007 UN Convention on Disability

millennium development goals
Millennium Development Goals

Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling

indicators for goal 2
Indicators for Goal 2
  • Net enrolment ratio in primary education
  • Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5
  • Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds.

Does not respond,

cannot learn

Needs special


Has special


Needs special


Child as problem

Needs special environment

Is different from

other children

Cannot get

to school




Poor quality


Rigid methods,

rigid curriculum

Inaccessible environments

Education system as problem

Lack of teaching

aids and equipment

Parents not


Many drop-outs,

many repeaters

Teachers and schools

not supported


Physical access – Oriang, Kenya

This log is the only bridge providing access to the nearest school.


“Levelling” the school environment

Teachers and pupils working to prevent soil erosion.


The importance of good lighting

This window has been enlarged to improve light quality.


Inclusive learning environments

Improved seating arrangements, collaborative learning, well lit classrooms, walls painted white.


Situation analysis



Inclusive learning environments

Teacher education and development

Economic empowerment

Key Issues

Early childhood development

Child to Child

School improvement



Parent and community involvement

eenet s view of ie
EENET’s view of IE

all children can learn

inclusive education is a dynamic process which is constantly evolving

differences in children, such as age, gender, ethnicity, language, disability, HIV and TB status, should be acknowledged and respected

education structures, systems and methodologies should be developed to meet the needs of all children

such developments should be seen as part of a wider strategy to promote an inclusive society

progress need not be restricted by large class sizes or a shortage of material resources.

Based on the Agra Conference, 1998

In Zanzibar (2006) the following issues were added:

  • Community involvement
  • the role of learners – mutual learning

A UNESCO definition of inclusive education

“Inclusive education starts from the belief that the right to education is a basic human right and the foundation for a more just society.

Inclusive education takes the Education for All (EFA) agenda forward by finding ways of enabling schools to serve all children in their communities….

Inclusive education is concerned with all learners, with a focus on those who have traditionally been excluded from educational opportunities – such as learners with special needs and disabilities, children from ethnic and linguistic minorities”.

 UNESCO, 2001

inclusive education a right
Inclusive education - a right
  • Article 24 requires all signatories to ensure that all disabled children and young people can fully participate in the state education system and this should be an ‘inclusive system at all levels’.
  • This right is to be delivered within an inclusive primary and secondary education system, from which disabled people should not be excluded.
  • Reasonable accommodations should be provided for individual requirements and support provided in individualised programmes to facilitate their effective social and academic education.