Universal Primary Education Bratislava, May 2007. Susie Miles School of Education, University of Manchester firstname.lastname@example.org Enabling Education Network - EENET www.eenet.org.uk. Overview. What is education? International Frameworks Millennium Development Goal: Education
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Universal Primary Education Bratislava, May 2007 Susie Miles School of Education, University of Manchester email@example.com Enabling Education Network - EENET www.eenet.org.uk
Overview • What is education? • International Frameworks • Millennium Development Goal: Education • Individual v social model of education • Promoting inclusive learning environments for all, Oriang, Kenya • Key issues in making education work • Definitions of inclusive education • UN Convention: the right to be included.
International frameworks 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child • Jomtien, Thailand – EFA Education for All 1993 UN Standard Rules (on Disability) 1994 Salamanca Statement 2000 Dakar, Senegal, EFA Conference & Millennium Development Goals 2002 Fast Track Initiative (for EFA) 2007 UN Convention on Disability
Millennium Development Goals Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling
Indicators for Goal 2 • Net enrolment ratio in primary education • Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 • Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds.
Does not respond, cannot learn Needs special teachers Has special needs Needs special equipment Child as problem Needs special environment Is different from other children Cannot get to school
Teachers’ attitudes Poor quality training Rigid methods, rigid curriculum Inaccessible environments Education system as problem Lack of teaching aids and equipment Parents not involved Many drop-outs, many repeaters Teachers and schools not supported
Physical access – Oriang, Kenya This log is the only bridge providing access to the nearest school.
“Levelling” the school environment Teachers and pupils working to prevent soil erosion.
The importance of good lighting This window has been enlarged to improve light quality.
Inclusive learning environments Improved seating arrangements, collaborative learning, well lit classrooms, walls painted white.
Situation analysis Special schools Inclusive learning environments Teacher education and development Economic empowerment Key Issues Early childhood development Child to Child School improvement Policy development Parent and community involvement
EENET’s view of IE all children can learn inclusive education is a dynamic process which is constantly evolving differences in children, such as age, gender, ethnicity, language, disability, HIV and TB status, should be acknowledged and respected education structures, systems and methodologies should be developed to meet the needs of all children such developments should be seen as part of a wider strategy to promote an inclusive society progress need not be restricted by large class sizes or a shortage of material resources. Based on the Agra Conference, 1998 In Zanzibar (2006) the following issues were added: • Community involvement • the role of learners – mutual learning
A UNESCO definition of inclusive education “Inclusive education starts from the belief that the right to education is a basic human right and the foundation for a more just society. Inclusive education takes the Education for All (EFA) agenda forward by finding ways of enabling schools to serve all children in their communities…. Inclusive education is concerned with all learners, with a focus on those who have traditionally been excluded from educational opportunities – such as learners with special needs and disabilities, children from ethnic and linguistic minorities”. UNESCO, 2001
Inclusive education - a right • Article 24 requires all signatories to ensure that all disabled children and young people can fully participate in the state education system and this should be an ‘inclusive system at all levels’. • This right is to be delivered within an inclusive primary and secondary education system, from which disabled people should not be excluded. • Reasonable accommodations should be provided for individual requirements and support provided in individualised programmes to facilitate their effective social and academic education.