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Dry Filter Unit (DFU) Overview

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  1. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division Dry Filter Unit (DFU)Overview

  2. Agenda • BW Agents and Threat • DFU Overview • HHA/DoD Biological Sampling Kit Overview • DFU Detection and Reliability • CONOPS • Issues • Summary

  3. Biological Weapon Agents

  4. Biological Agent Weaponization

  5. BW Agents: Bacteria, Rickettsia, Viruses

  6. BW Agents: Toxins

  7. Biological Warfare Threat • Most Efficient and Likely Means of Delivering a BW Agent to Target Is in Form of an Aerosol • Aerosols Can Be Delivered on Target Without Any Indication of Their Presence • Enemy Is Unlikely to Send Warning Prior to Delivery • Aerosol Sampling/Collection and Identification Is the Only Means of Determining the Presence of an Aerosol

  8. Dry Filter Unit • Biological Air Sampler • Collect and Concentrate Biological Particulates From Ambient Air • Ambient Air Drawn Through 1 Micron Polyester Felt Filter at the Rate of ~ 1000 Liters/min Via Electrical Blower • Human Breathing Rate ~ 15 Liters/min ( DFU “Breathes” ~ 67 X More Particles) • Recommend Collection Time: 1-12 Hours • Filter Placed Into Buffer Solution, Shaken to Extract Particles, and Analyzed Using HHA for Presumptive Identification of BW Agents • Detection Sensitivity of DFU/HHA System: 20-35 ACPLA Minutes • ACPLA = Agent-Containing-Particle-Per-Liter-Air • Well Characterized for Anthrax and Bg (Simulant) • Additional Testing Being Conducted for Other Agents

  9. DFU Functional Diagram Filter (Concentrates Particles) Airborne Particles Intake Exhaust Flow (Q)= Velocity (V) x Area (A) Flow= 1000 liters/min (28 cfm)

  10. DFU Filter Extraction Filter Buffer Solution Filter in Buffer Solution Filter and Particles in Buffer Solution After “Quick Shake” Extraction

  11. Suspect Agent DFU Operational Concept 1-12 hours 2 min 15 min Presumptive Identification Confirmatory Sample Collect Sample Prep 4-5 ml sample HHA Filter Disk and Accessories DFU 1000

  12. DFU Specifications

  13. DFU 1000

  14. DFU 1000 Components Inlet Stack Filter Assembly Lid Filter Latch Casing Warning Labels Air Outlet Power Connection Power Connection Cover Exhaust Hose

  15. DFU Kit

  16. Hand Held Assay (HHA) • Provides Presumptive ID of BW Agents in Suspect Samples • Same Format as Home Pregnancy Test • Simple Operation, Inexpensive, Single Use • Results in 15 Minutes • Reliable • Rigorous QA/QC Testing • Low False Positive Rate • Presumptive ID Component in Currently Fielded and Developmental Joint BW Detection Systems (Portal Shield, JBPDS, DoD Biological Detection System, DFU) • Shelf Life: 2 Years at Refrigerated Temperatures (4°C) • Do Not Freeze Panel of 8 HHAs

  17. DoD Biological Sampling Kit • Presumptive ID of BW Agents: • Contamination Detection After a BW Attack • Quick Screen of Suspect Packages/Samples (Analogous to M8 Paper) • Contents • Panel of 8 HHAs (10 Available) • Conical Tube Containing: • Bottle of Buffer Solution • Sterile Cotton Swabs • Basic Instructions • Cost: $52 • Good Shelf Life • One-Time Use Only • Training Kits and Interactive Training CD-ROM Available DOD Biological Sampling Kit Training CD-ROM Never Used as the Sole Basis for Agent Identification Not for Diagnostic Use Used by Capitol Police to Positively Identify Senator Daschle Letter!

  18. Biological Detection CONOPS • Threat and Risk Assessment • Sampling Location(s) • Sampling Frequency • Collection Time • Sample Preparation • Presumptive Identification (HHA) • Information Management/Decision Authority • Confirmatory Sample Transportation/Testing (PCR) Operational Modes

  19. Threat and Risk Assessment • Geographical Location • Intelligence • Force Protection Condition • Weather Conditions • Threat Identification (Specifics) • Delivery Mechanisms • Ship Vulnerabilities • Credible Risk Scenarios • Countermeasures

  20. DFU CONOPS • The DFU/HHA System Will Be Employed in Order to Provide Biological Sampling and Presumptive Identification Capability • Can Provide “Detect to Treat” Capability • Operational Concept Will Depend On: • Geographical Location • Threat Condition • Vulnerability • Contamination Avoidance Phase (Pre, Initial, Post Involvement) • Weather Conditions • Commander Discretion • Operational Locations : • Base Camp

  21. DFU Operations • External Sampling • Dry Filter Units should be placed in locations where there will be a high concentration of agents in the event of an attack • Easy access for retrieving filters for analysis • 1-12 hour collection time/analysis cycle • Internal Sampling • Dry Filter Units should be placed in vicinity under suspicion • Compartments receiving outside supplies • Mission critical spaces • 1-12 hour collection time/analysis cycle • Sampling Frequency/Collection Time • I, II, III, IV Operational Modes

  22. DFU Operational Modes • Guidelines for Sampling Frequency and Collection Times • I – Area of Known or Suspected Biological Threat • II - Area of Known or Possible Biological Threat • III - Biological Attack Probable • IV - Biological Attack Imminent/Post Attack/Decon 0000 1200 2400 0000 0600 1200 1800 2400 0000 0400 0800 1200 1600 2000 2400 0000 0600 1200 1800 2400

  23. DFU 1000 Operating Procedures • Setup/Installation • Filter Preparation • Collection • Retrieve Filters • Sample Preparation • Presumptive Identification Testing (HHAs) • DFU 1000 Operators Manual

  24. DFU Issues • SEC • How many DFUs? • Where to install them? • Sampling Schedule? • Logistics • Storage of HHAs (Refrigeration) and DFU Kits • Personnel • Training • Decon of Equipment

  25. Summary • BW Threat to US Forces is Real • DFUs/HHAs (Coupled with Confirmatory Analysis) Offer Best Available BW Detection Capability • Inexpensive • Easy to Use • Reliable • Available Immediately – Units Fielded and in Production