Journey so far... • Epistemology • Science and philosophy of knowledge • constructivism • assimilation • accomodation • associationism • Visualisation • Mind Maps
I E N P S J F T Journey so far... • Bloom’s Taxonomy • Learning Theories • Behavourism • Cognitivism • Social Constructivism • Learning Styles Bloom’s Taxonomy
Last lecture... Learning Styles
"You might belong in Gryffindor, Where dwell the brave at heart, There daring, nerve, and chivalry Set Gryffindors apart” "You belong in Hufflepuff,Where they are just and loyal,Those patient Hufflepuffs are true And unafraid to toil" "Here in wise old Ravenclaw, If you've a ready mind, Those of wit and learning, Will always find their kind." "Here you are in Slytherin,Where you'll make your real friends, Those cunning folk use any means To achieve their ends."
I E N P S J F T Learning Styles Models Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator
Carl Jung • Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker and the • Founder of analytical psychology,also known as “Jungian Psychology” EXPLORING THE SOUL A Challenge to Freud
Perception Sensor Intuitor Judgement Feeler Thinker Jungian Learning
I E N P S J F T Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • Based on Carl Jung’s ideas • Created during World War II to help women who were entering the industrial workforce • Measured psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions • http://www.myersbriggs.org
Gregorc Learning Style Abstract Sequential Abstract Random Concrete Random Concrete Sequential
Central to Learning Styles... • Importance of the social aspect and communication in learning • knowledge & meaning is contructed through inter-personal mechanisms (verbal and written )
Communications Part 1
Agenda • Introduction • Brief History of Communications • Process of Communication • Active Listening • Non-Verbal Communication Lecture notes partially based on “Communication Skills” presentation by SoftLogic Technologies Pvt. Ltd.
Why Communication? • A communication problem within IT industry • See a normal IT scenario...
How Projects Really Work http://www.projectcartoon.com/
Decipering the cartoon? Break down and failure of communication!
What is “communication”? • Latin “communicare” - "to share, divide out; impart, inform; join, unite, participate in," lit. "to make common,“ • A process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior • The act of communicating; transmission. • The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior. • Interpersonal rapport. • Communications (used with a sing. or pl. verb) • The art and technique of using words effectively to impart information or ideas. • The field of study concerned with the transmission of information by various means, such as print or broadcasting. • Any of various professions involved with the transmission of information, such as advertising, broadcasting, or journalism. • Something communicated; a message
Aristotle’s Speaker-Centered Model • Greek philosopher-teacher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). • Aristotle’s definition of rhetoricis one of the earliest definitions of communication • “Rhetoric” is “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion” (Rhetoric 1335b). • Aristotle attempted to work out a theory of communication and language. http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/Communication%20Models.htm#ClassicalCommunicationModels
Aristotle’s Speaker-Centered Model • Logos • the matter under discussion • Pathos • the reader's stake in that matter • Ethos • the claims of the author
Speaker Message Listener Aristotle’s Model of Communication • Designed for public speaking/oration • Speaker at the center of the communication process • Speaker prepares a message for an intended audience • Message is intended to have an effect- influence the audience • Audience is seen to be passive and ready to be influenced by the speaker's message In other words, according to Aristotle a speaker sends a message to an audience and the audience is affected by the message received.
Progress and development • Little development in Communications theory during the intervening millenia • Rapid progress in 20th Century • espcially after World War II
Laswell’s Model“Who says what to whom in what channel with what effect” • Harold Dwight Lasswell • (1902-1978) American political scientist and communications theorist • World War II • Chief of the Experimental Division for the Study of War Time Communications at the Library of Congress. • Analysed Nazi propaganda films to identify mechanisms of persuasion used to secure the support of the German people for the war
Laswell’s 5 Elements of Propaganda Propaganda entailed five key elements • Lasswell assembled these elements into a model and then turned the model into a simple question: • “Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?” (declassified in 1948) • If you found the right answers to each of the five elements of the question, then you could create effective propaganda – unless, of course, too much “noise” – unplanned static or distortion during the communication process – resulted in the receiver receiving a different message than the sender sent.
“...bring the boys home.” • For example, it was discovered that“Help win the war” wasn’t the most effective slogan to use for selling war bonds. • Appealed to men, but not women. • This led to the development of a more effective slogan: “Help win the war and bring the boys home.”
The Shannon-Weaver Model http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/Communication%20Models.htm#ClassicalCommunicationModels
Schramm’s Model of Communication • Wilburn Schramm proposed this model in 1955 • Considered to be the best of all the theories since it is evolved and comprehensive http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/Communication%20Models.htm#ClassicalCommunicationModels
Schramm’s Model of Communication • First stage – one way • Emphasis on encoding process and source like that of Aristotle without any recognition for noise. • It too was a one-way direction of communication flow. • Second stage – two way • Emphasis shifted to the shared domain of experience of sender and receiver. • The sender has to take into consideration, according to this theory, the needs and abilities of the receiver, which he must be aware of due to shared experience, and thus the selects the right channel and at the same time encodes the message in the way that can be understood by the receiver. • Here the communication process is understood to be a two-way flow. • Third stage - feedback • Feedback was thought to be an essential element of communication system. In this stage of Schramm's theory, the communication process encompasses sender, receiver, good channel, proper encoding, proper decoding, and feedback. The flow which ends with feedback starts immediately again to make a circular process.
Berlo S-M-R-C Model When one is attempting to convey an emotionally complex message, the Berlo Model may be the more appropriate choice. http://www.uri.edu/artsci/lsc/Faculty/Carson/508/03Website/Hayden/berlo.html http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/Handouts/Communication%20Models.htm#ClassicalCommunicationModels
Assignement Website design – Aristotle’s “Rhetorical” principles (part 1) • Ethos - ethos, from which we get the word "ethical," has to do with reputation or character, in other words what other people think of us and whether they feel they can trust us. • In terms of digital design, ethos or credibility is extremely important for you to keep in mind because online trust determines whether people feel your site and its message are credible. Digital ethos can be constructed by a number of factors, such as visual appeal, organized navigation, and rich information content. Yet the ancient Greek word ethos also had another basic meaning, that of habitual gathering place, and in some regards, online ethos can also be seen as whether a designer has constructed a site to which people can return again and again, or whether the site creates a sense of online community through user interactions. • Logos - logos, from which we get the word "logical," concerns the logic and consistency of the message being communicated. • In other words, does the content of your site make sense and is it written in a consistent tone or style? Consistency also becomes important in terms of overall site structure. A poorly organized site with visually confusing pages can undermine the concept of logos, which in turn can reduce the site's overall ethos. For Aristotle, all points of the rhetorical triangle were interrelated. • Pathos - pathos, from which we get the words "pathetic" and "empathy," deals with the emotions, specifically those of the audience. In classical rhetorical theory, playing on an audience's emotions was seen as a primary vehicle of persuasion, but in more modern times, pathos has come to mean any rhetorical act that addresses audience expectations or information needs. • In this regard, it is extremely important that you understand and analyze the audiences for your Web site, anticipating their informational and navigational needs at every click of your site. That is why Jakob Nielsen and his colleague stress using concise, scannable text in all Web documents -- because that's the way most Web users read. http://eserver.org/courses/f04/313/lessons/week2.html
Assignement Website design – Aristotle’s “Rhetorical” principles (part 2) • In your first assignment for this class, due September 9th, you'll be asked to compose a rhetorical analysis of an organizational Web site. In this analysis, you should examine all three points of the rhetorical triangle and how well the designers have addressed these three elements in their site design. In other words, you'll be discussing how the designers constructed ethos, logos, and pathos. • Audience Analysis • Identification and analysis of your Web site's audience is perhaps the most crucial step you can take in the early stages of your design process. Factors to examine in any audience analysis include: • Context in which the site is being read • User attitudes and motivations • Education and reading levels • Professional experience • Organizational role. • For general Internet use, your audience may be so broad as to defy description, but in most situations, you can gain a very detailed sense of who your audience members are and what their informational needs are. • In professional digital design firms, audience analysis and user testing are primary components of the design process and are conducted for many weeks before the first line of code is ever written. Why? Such testing helps designers fashion both content and structure of the site in order to reduce the need for changes once the site is being constructed. Such user testing includes everything from focus group interviews to unsability studies in which people navigate through prototype sections of a site and report problems they experience. As part of your Web site proposal due March 28th, I expect you to include a fairly extensive analysis of who your audience is for your proposed site. http://eserver.org/courses/f04/313/lessons/week2.html
Source • Why to communicate? • What to communicate? • Usefulness of the communication • Accuracy of the information to be communicated
Encoding • The process of transferring the information you want to communicate into a form that can be sent and correctly decoded at the other end. • Ability to convey the information. • Eliminate sources of confusion, e.g. cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, missing information, etc • Know your audience.
Channels • Written • Letters • Memos • Proposals • Reports • Presentations • E-mails • SMS text • Instant Messenging • Tweets • Verbal • Meetings • Telephone conversations • Video conferencing
Decoding • Effective decoding • Listen actively • Read information carefully • Ask questions for better understanding • Avoid/reduceconfusion
Receiver • Prior knowledge can influence the receiver’s understanding of the message • Blockages in the receiver’s mind • The surrounding disturbances
Feedback feedback • Feedback can be: • Verbal • Non-verbal • Written • Positive • Negative
Context • The sender needs to communicate the context to the receiver for better clarity in the overall communications process. • Situation • e.g. introduction, sales pitch, conflict, an exam, etc. • Different cultures • e.g. academic, corporate, international, regional, etc. • Language • Location or place • e.g. restaurant, office, classroom, etc.
Communication & the Organisation Understanding communication process is critical to management of the organization. Managers should understand that communication is rarely understood as it should be. The distortion of the message can happen at any of the stages in communication process-sender, receiver, encoding, decoding, channel, message and feedback. Prof.Appalayya Meesala, Professor of Management in Deccan School of Management http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Dr.Appalayya_Meesala
What makes a good communicator? Written Academic Writing Revision and editing Critical Reading Presentation of Data Oral Presentation Audience Awareness Critical Listening Body Language Non-Verbal Audience Awareness Personal Presentation Body Language http://science.uniserve.edu.au/projects/skills/jantrial/communication/communication.htm
What makes a good communicator?In other words... • An active listener • An effective presenter • A quick thinker • A win-win negotiator We will be examining each of these areas in detail over the coming weeks
Active Listening 4 steps
Active Listening • Understand your own communication style • Listen With Purpose • Use non-verbal communication • Give feedback (in detail below)
Active Listening1) Understand your owncommunication style • High level of self-awareness to creating good & long lasting impression on others. • Understand how others perceive you • Avoid being a “chamelon” by changing with every personality you meet • Make others comfortable by selecting appropriate behavior that suits your personality while listening. (Ideally, nodding your head).