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The Ankle and Foot Joints. Function of the foot. Provide a stable platform Generate propulsion Absorb shock. Bones. Ankle + foot = 28 bones foot = 26 bones Leg: tibia, fibula Foot: Tarsals (7): talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, and cuneiforms (3) Metatarsals (5) Phalanges (14).

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Presentation Transcript
function of the foot
Function of the foot
  • Provide a stable platform
  • Generate propulsion
  • Absorb shock
bones
Bones
  • Ankle + foot = 28 bones
  • foot = 26 bones
  • Leg: tibia, fibula
  • Foot:
    • Tarsals (7): talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, and cuneiforms (3)
    • Metatarsals (5)
    • Phalanges (14)
joints
Joints
  • Tibiofibular:
    • articulation between tibia and fibula
      • amphiarthrodial joint
  • Ankle joint
    • Talocrural
      • articulation between talus and tibia; talus and fibula
      • classified as a ginglymus
joints5
Joints
  • Subtalar joint
    • articulation between talus and calcaneus
    • classified as arthrodial (gliding) joint
  • Transverse tarsal joint
    • articulation between talus, navicular, calcaneus and cuboid bones
    • classified as arthrodial joint
joints6
Joints
  • Tarsometatarsal
    • tarsal bones and metatarsal
    • classified as arthrodial (gliding) joints
  • Metatarsophalangeal
    • metatarsals and phalanges
    • classified as condyloid
  • Interphalangeal joints (proximal and distal)
    • phalangeal bones
    • ginglymus
arches of the foot
Arches of the foot
  • Medial longitudinal arch
    • calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiforms (3), and medial metatarsals (3).
  • Lateral longitudinal arch
    • calcanueus, cuboid, lateral metatarsals (4 & 5)
  • Transverse arch
    • across metatarsals
classifying arch type
Classifying Arch Type
  • Pes Planus: Flat foot
  • Pes Cavus: High Arch
  • Normal
movements
Movements
  • Ankle joint
    • dorsiflexion: “raising the toes”
    • plantarflexion: “point the toes”
  • Subtalar & Transverse tarsal joints
    • Calcaneal inversion and eversion
  • Interphalangeal joints
    • flexion
    • extension
movements10
Movements
  • Supination
      • inversion
      • plantar flexion
      • adduction
  • Pronation
      • eversion
      • dorsiflexion
      • abduction
summary
Summary
  • Bones of the foot:
    • tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
  • Joints of the foot and ankle
    • talocrural (ankle)
    • subtalar
    • transverse tarsal
    • metatarsalphalangeal
    • interphalangeal
  • Movements
    • dorsiflexion/plantarflexion (ankle joint)
    • inversion/eversion (subtalar & transverse tarsal)
    • flexion and extension of toes about the interphalangeal joints
muscles
Muscles
  • Plantar flexors
  • Dorsi flexors
  • Evertors
  • Invertors
plantar flexors
Plantar Flexors
  • Gastrocnemius
  • Flexor digitorum longus
  • Peroneus longus
  • Plantaris
  • Soleus
  • Tibialis Posterior
dorsiflexors
Dorsiflexors
  • Tibialis anterior
  • Peroneus tertius
  • Extensor digitorum longus
invertors
Invertors
  • Tibialis anterior
  • Tibialis posterior
  • Flexor hallucis longus
evertors
Evertors
  • Peroneus longus
  • Peroneus brevis
  • Peroneus tertius
  • Extensor digitorum longus
extensor digitorum longus p44
Extensor digitorum longus (p44)
  • Origin
    • lateral condyle of tibia
    • upper 3/4 of anterior aspect of fibula
  • Insertion
    • superior aspect of foot, middle and distal phalanges of four lesser toes
  • Action
    • Extension of four lesser toes
    • dorsal flexion
    • eversion
extensor hallucis longus p45
Extensor hallucis longus (p45)
  • Origin
    • fibula, middle aspect of anterior fibula
  • Insertion
    • superior aspect of foot, base of distal phalanx of great toe
  • Action
    • dorsiflexion
    • extension of great toe
peroneus tertius p46
Peroneus tertius (p46)
  • Origin
    • fibula, anterior-lateral surface of lower 1/3 of fibula
  • Insertion
    • superior aspect of foot, base of fifth metatarsal
  • Action
    • Eversion
    • Dorsal flexion
tibialis anterior p47
Tibialis anterior (p47)
  • Origin
    • Lateral condyle of tibia
    • Upper two-thirds of anterior-lateral aspect of tibia
  • Insertion
    • plantar surface of 1st (medial) cuneiform and 1st metatarsal
  • Action
    • Dorsal flexion
    • inversion
peroneus brevis p48
Peroneus brevis (p48)
  • Origin
    • fibula, lower two-thirds, lateral aspect
  • Insertion
    • 5th metatarsal tuberosity
  • Action
    • eversion
peroneus longus p49
Peroneus longus (p49)
  • Origin
    • lateral surface of tibia
    • fibula, upper two-thirds of lateral aspect of fibula
  • Insertion
    • inferior aspect of foot, 1st cuneiform and 1st metatarsal bones
  • Action
    • Eversion
    • Plantar flexion
flexor digitorum longus p50
Flexor digitorum longus (p50)
  • Origin
    • tibia, middle third, posterior aspect
  • Insertion
    • plantar surface of foot, distal phalanx of each of the four lesser toes (no big toe)
  • Action
    • ‘toe’ flexion
    • plantar flexion
flexor hallucis longus p51
Flexor hallucis longus (p51)
  • Origin
    • fibula, lower two-thirds, posterior aspect
  • Insertion
    • plantar aspect of foot, base of distal phalanx of big toe (‘hallucis’)
  • Action
    • ‘big toe flexion’
    • inversion
gastrocnemius p52
Gastrocnemius (p52)
  • Origin
    • medial and lateral epicondyle of the femur
  • Insertion
    • posterior surface of calcaneus
  • Action
    • plantar flexion
    • knee flexion
soleus p54
Soleus (p54)
  • Origin
    • upper 1/3 posterior shaft of fibula
    • posterior surface of head of fibula
    • popliteal line
    • middle 1/3 of medial border of tibia
  • Insertion
    • Posterior surface of the calcaneus
  • Action
    • Plantar flexion
slide27
Note
  • Gastrocnemius and Soleus muscles have a common tendon/insertion (calcaneal tendon or Achilles tendon)
  • Some texts refer to the combination of the gastrocnemius and soleus as the triceps surae (three headed muscle).
plantaris p53
Plantaris (p53)
  • Origin
    • posterior surface of lateral epicondyle of femur
  • Insertion
    • posterior surface of calcaneus
  • Action
    • plantar flexion
tibialis posterior p55
Tibialis Posterior (p55)
  • Origin
    • middle 1/3 of posterior-lateral surface of tibia
    • middle 1/3 of posterior-medial surface of fibula
  • Insertion
    • plantar surface of foot, lower inner surfaces of navicular, cuneiforms, and 2nd & 3rd metatarsals
  • Action
    • plantar flexion
    • inversion
summary of muscles
Summary of muscles
  • Plantar flexors
    • gast., sol., flx digitorum long., per longus, tib post, plantaris
  • Dorsi flexors
    • tib ant, per tertius, ext dig long
  • Evertors
    • per longus, brevis, tertius, ext dig longus
  • Invertors
    • tib ant & post, flx hallucis long