outline l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Outline PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Outline

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 49
Download Presentation

Outline - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Leo
286 Views
Download Presentation

Outline

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Outline • Leaks • Water Quality • Muddy water, fish kills, animals • Common Plants and Algae and Control • Control Methods • Grass Carp • Barley Straw Update • Fish Topics • Common species, trout, fish kills • Miscellaneous Problems • Canada Geese, muddy water • New Resources

  2. Pond Leaks • Avoid with proper design and construction! • Nearly always necessary to drain pond • Simple compaction if good clay present • Make-up water – sometimes possible • Sealing products • Plastic liner - $$$$ • Bentonite (one pound/ft2) – also $$$ • disc into soil 3 or 4 inches, swells when wet • better for coarse textured soils • Sodium polyphosphate (0.05 lbs./ft2) • white granular form, mix to 8” then compact • breaks soil into fine particles • blanket of clay • 6 inches in depth and compact, refill pond quickly

  3. Pond Water Quality for Farms • nitrate-N should be less than 100 mg/L • fecal coliform bacteria • <10 per 100 ml for adult animals • 0 fecal coliform for calves • blue-green algae - toxins • pH should be 5.1 to 9.0 for dairy cows • watch use of aquatic herbicides (copper) • iron and manganese - taste problem • sulfate < 250 mg/L (mining)

  4. Pond Water Quality for Fish • temperature • all fish have temperature limits • difficult to control – must match fish to temperature • used to determine fish spawning times • dissolved oxygen • normal = 10-15 mg/L • warmwater fish like D.O. > 3 mg/L • coldwater fish like D.O. > 5 mg/L • depletion caused by decay of organic matter • most common cause of fish kills in ponds

  5. Pond Water Quality for Fish • pH • can be treated with chemical additions • warmwater fish (6 to 9), coldwater (pH 5 to 9) • low pH may cause stunted growth of fish • aquatic herbicides • many are toxic to fish (especially young fish) • obtain a permit and read the label carefully • herbicide runoff • some are extremely toxic to fish • especially high following first rain after application

  6. Fish Kills in Ponds • #1 oxygen depletion • decay of organic material • #2 undetermined disease • Noted by death on only one or two kinds of fish • #3 pesticides • runoff or drift from fields, improper aquatic use • #4 cotton wool disease • occurs in spring around spawning time • soil bacteria infects bluegill, bullhead, crappie • #5 winter kill • shallow ponds with persistent ice and snow cover

  7. Pond Water Quality for Swimming • coliform bacteria • 2000 total coliform bacteria per 100 ml of water • 200 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml • swimmers itch • free swimming parasite • can be controlled with copper sulfate or predator fish introductions

  8. Water Quality for Aquatic Herbicides • hardness • affects dose of some chemicals • temperature • Many labels recommend temperature range of 60 to 75 F

  9. Aquatic Plants and Algae First Step – What is the Objective?

  10. Cause of Plant and Algae Problems • Natural aging of the pond • Transport of plants from pond to pond • Canada Geese!! • Nutrient inputs • Ideally – 10-20% of pond bottom and surface will be covered with aquatic plants

  11. Nutrient Management • N and P cause increased plant and algae growth • Sources • runoff from barnyards, cropland, feedlots • sewage systems • managed turf (golf courses, developments) • Control (BMP’s) - impact will not be immediate! • redirect runoff • reduce fertilizer use • buffer strips (tall grass or forests) • maintain on-lot septic systems

  12. Plant Identification • Field Guides • Through the Looking Glass … (available from Wisconsin Lakes Partnership for $20, 715-346-3424). • Many web pages • How to Identify and Control Water Weeds and Algae and Aquatic Pesticide Application Assistant CD – both available at 800-647-5368 • Send digital pictures to brs@psu.edu

  13. Chara – hardwater areas, encrusted, usually beneficial except in some shallow ponds Filamentous Algae – many species

  14. Algae Control • Mechanical • Raking, netting, aeration (??) • Chemical • Copper sulfate or chelated copper compounds • Rapid acting, non-selective, contact herbicide (0.25 to 0.5 ppm), cheap • more toxic in soft and acidic water • may kill sensitive fish (trout, catfish, carp) • accumulates in sediment! • Dyes • block sunlight (blue/yellow dyes), no permit, cheap • safe for fish but “artificial” appearance • Biological • Grazing insects, bacteria products (??)

  15. Barley Straw Update • Fungi decompose barley in water releases inhibitory chemical (hydrogen peroxide?) • Not all algae susceptible • Results inconsistent • species, water condition, climate

  16. Barley Straw Use • Break bales apart into loose netting • Place in shallow water (< 5 feet) • March or April best • 225 lbs/acre (~5 bales per acre) • Higher dose in muddy water (double)

  17. Barley Straw Regulation • EPA considers barley straw a pesticide • It cannot be sold as a pesticide since it is unregistered • Important for commercial user but homeowner can still use it as “home remedy” • Extension should use care in recommending its use to commercial applicators

  18. Exotic Curly-leaf Pondweed Floating-leaf Pondweed Thin-leaf Pondweed Large-leaf Pondweed

  19. Leafy Pondweed Common problem, very dense growth

  20. Coontail – dense, may float, fragments Watermilfoil – reddish, fragments, feather-like leaves

  21. Elodea – dense, common in northern PA ponds, aquarium plant, good habitat

  22. Bladderwort – tiny oval bladders, may float, found in cold, acidic ponds, yellow or purple flowers

  23. Naiad – brittle, grows in deeper water, fragments

  24. Physical/Mechanical Control • cutting, raking, mowing, digging, pulling • most effective for small quantities near shore • usually need to repeat several times per year • need to harvest plants if possible • mechanical harvesters for larger lakes ($$) • can make some problems worse! (naiad, elodea, coontail, etc.) • blanket • gravel or sand • shade • black plastic for 30 days • deepen pond edges • drawdown • expose and freeze root stock

  25. Biological Control • triploid grass carp (white amur) • Will eat most submerged aquatic plants • pondweeds, naiads, elodea, coontail, muskgrass • Not for floaters (somewhat for duckweed) • Not for emergents • Little control of algae • thrive in warm water (68°F+) • can reach 25 pounds or more • may cause water discoloration • sterile fish must be stocked • permit required (1 to 15 per acre) • koi, carp not recommended

  26. Herbicides for Submerged Plants • Hydrothol 191 (monopotassium endothall) • rapid, non-selective, no root kill, high fish toxicity • Aquathol-K (dipotassium endothall) • same as above, contact stops photosynthesis, • Weedtrine-D (diquat dibromide) • Reward (diquat dibromide) • rapid adsorption, stops photosynthesis, degrades fast • Sonar SRP (fluridone) • slow acting, inhibits carotene • Copper Compounds • rapid, non-selective, high fish toxicity, accumulate, inhibits cell growth, generally algaecides

  27. Herbicide Use • Important to make clients aware of state permit requirement • There is a large-scale failure to use permit system • This could lead to tighter regulation • Liability issue • Permit ensures correct herbicide and dose • Simple, takes about two weeks to get permit, available online • Chemical must be EPA registered, PDA listed, and labeled for aquatic use • Important that client reads and follows label directions • Careful pond measurements are critical

  28. Cattails – mechanical removal?, can use Rodeo also

  29. Purple Loosestrife – problem exotic plant in much of PA, Rodeo effective

  30. Emergent Plant Control • Mechanical • Pulling • Cutting – may drown plant • Digging • Drawdown • Chemical • Rodeo (glyphosate) • moves through plant from contact to roots • Weedtrine (2,4-D) • roots lose ability to take up nutrients

  31. Watershield – common in acidic ponds, underside of leaf is purple with gelatinous film, dull red or purple flowers, spreads quickly, BIG problem, Rodeo or 2,4-D product

  32. Spatterdock – heart shaped leaf, yellow flower

  33. Water Lily – often desirable, mechanical control possible

  34. Watermeal Duckweed These are BIG problems in PA, especially stagnant ponds, Sonar best herbicide ($$)

  35. Floating Plant Control • Mechanical • Netting or aeration (duckweed) • Pulling or cutting (watershield) • Chemical • Rodeo (glyphosate) • moves through plant from contact to roots • AquaKleen/Aquacide/Navigate (2,4-D) • roots lose ability to take up nutrients • Sonar A.S. (fluridone) • absorbed by leaves and roots, inhibits carotene • Biological • Grass Carp (limited duckweed control)

  36. Herbicides Can be Expensive! cost per acre • Reward® (diquat dibromide) - $200 to $400 • submerged • Sonar® (fluridone) - $500 to $1,000 • floaters, some submerged • Rodeo® (glyphosate) - $100 to $250 • emergents, some floaters • Copper compounds - < $100 • algae • Navigate (2,4-D) - $300 to $600 • some floaters, some submerged

  37. Fish Topics • bass/bluegill • most common and most successful option • thrive in warmer water (77 - 86° F) • dissolved oxygen > 3 mg/L, pH 6 to 9 • requires management and patience • abundant small bass • harvest bass, slot limit, stock bluegill?, patience • abundant bluegill • harvest bluegill, limit bass harvest, 15:1 harvest ratio

  38. Other Options • bass only • 150-200 fall fingerlings • add 8-10 adults bass in spring before spawn • great for lots of 9-12 inch bass • bass/shiner • summer stocking 100 bass, 400 golden shiners • faster bass growth, aquatic plants helpful • bass/catfish • 500 catfish, 1,000 fathead minnows in Feb-Mar • 100 bass fingerlings added in May-July

  39. Other Fish Species • shiners - need to be continually stocked • perch - prolific, spawn before bass, ice fishing! • pike, muskie, walleye - not for ponds • channel catfish – spawning and survival unpredictable • sunfish - lower winter survival, slower growing • bullhead catfish -prone to stunting and overcrowding, may muddy the water, have low water quality requirements • crappie - some success in PA with cool, deep ponds, also good for ice fishing

  40. Trout in Ponds • not well suited to most PA ponds • like cold water with dissolved oxygen > 5 mg/L and pH of 5 to 9 • cannot compete with warmwater fish • “put and take” option • stock catchable size trout in spring • fish them out before water warms (June)

  41. Miscellaneous Topics • supplemental feeding • liming/fertilization • pond regulations • adding fish structure

  42. Muddy Water • “natural” color cannot be removed • common in new ponds (exposed soil) • other reasons - muskrats, crayfish, fish, livestock, waterfowl, zooplankton, wind • control - remove cause? • chemical addition (per acre) • 1,000 lbs. ground agricultural limestone • 740 lbs. hydrated lime • 1,000 lbs. agricultural gypsum (not as good) • 250 lbs. aluminum sulfate (alum) • 2 lbs. copper sulfate (zooplankton)

  43. Canada Geese • spread plants from pond to pond! • coliform bacteria from waste can be a problem for swimming • try to maintain <2 ducks/geese per acre • eliminate if using for water supply • short-term migrational stops generally not a problem

  44. Canada Geese • Man-made barriers • Fence • Goose Grid -plastic line, checker board, temporary • 20 lb. monofilament tied to stakes around pond at 6” and 12” • Riprap – 2 to 3 foot band around pond • Repellent • Turfshield – artificial grape flavor with sticking agent

  45. Canada Geese • Harassment • Scarecrows like owls, hawks – short-lived • Noise • Ice • Turn off aeration to allow pond to freeze in winter • Vegetation • Like bluegrass, ryegrass, red fescue • Dislike tall fescue, common periwinkle, English ivy, Japanese pachysandra • Vegetative barriers – cattails, bulrushes, shrubs, etc.

  46. Resources • Pond Management Circular • Plant Control Publication (for sale) • NRCS Design Publication • PSU Fact Sheets (2) • Barley Straw • Aquatic Plant and Algae Control • Others??? • Web sites – lots of them! • APD display – panels, What’s in My Pond? • CD and Book on Aquatic Plants • Pond Downlink (video) • Repeat??

  47. Muskrats • build dens in banks 6-18” below surface • burrow extends upward into bank • may cause leaks and collapse in poorly designed ponds • riprapping shoreline with large gravel from one foot above to 3 feet below water surface • may be killed for property destruction in PA

  48. Leeches • flat, dark-colored, parasite • attach to swimmers, fish, birds • harmless but frightening and detract from swimming use • need 5 mg/L of copper sulfate treatment • this treatment will kill fish! • partial treatment (< 20% of pond area) of swimming area best but temporary

  49. Swimmer’s Itch • not common but occasionally found in PA • free-swimming parasite that burrows under skin and causes itch and rash for 3-7 days • develops mostly in snails in pond • More common in ponds with few predator fish • must control snails • Largemouth bass • redear sunfish (shellcrackers) • Copper sulfate at 4 mg/L will kill snails but also kills fish