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Feeding Frenzy Report. Check spelling!!!!!!!!!!!! 3 rd person Remember to include your sources, for definitions, ideas, etc. Introduction: Background: competition, predation, resource partitioning, define terms used Rationale for doing the study: Why is this important, purpose

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feeding frenzy report
Feeding Frenzy Report
  • Check spelling!!!!!!!!!!!!
  • 3rd person
  • Remember to include your sources, for definitions, ideas, etc.
  • Introduction:
    • Background: competition, predation, resource partitioning, define terms used
    • Rationale for doing the study: Why is this important, purpose
    • Guide reader to the hypothesis: Why do you expect to find what you do
    • Explain what the tools represent, feeding types, whether they are advanced or not
    • Hypotheses:
      • Slotted spoon would do the best
      • Trial 1 would have the most survivors, would do the best, because no resource limitation, no predation
  • Methods: how
    • Remember, we only did 2 trials, do not simply copy the handout verbatim
    • Include point scale for survival, food points (big vs. small), times (5 min), utensils
feeding frenzy cont
Feeding Frenzy Cont.
  • Results:
    • Give averages for the tables
    • Make 2 graphs
      • Stacked bar chart of % survivors and % deaths
      • Bar chart of 4 different tools used and average points per tool
    • Give actual values for trends mentioned
    • You need to set the stage for your discussion
      • i.e., state which tool had the highest points, which the lowest, which trial had the most survivors.
    • Figure legend below figure, table title above
figure legend example figure map or chart of data with x and y coordinates
Figure legend exampleFigure=map or chart of data with x and y coordinates

Figure legend

Refer to Figure in text

discussion
Discussion
  • Revisit hypotheses-how did we do
  • Answer the questions how and why
  • No new data should be presented here but you can refer back to figures in the results section
conclusions improvements only
Conclusions- improvements only
  • What about the experiment would you change
  • Write in 3rd person
how much of the ocean has been explored
How much of the ocean has been explored?
  • World’s ocean floor = 2 moons plus 2 mars sized planets
  • 80 % of life on earth found under the ocean surface
  • Oceans contain 99% of the living space on the planet.
  • Less than 10% of that space has been explored by humans.
  • Deep Sea = 85% of the area and 90% of the volume
  • Poorly mapped
  • 5 % mapped as precisely as moon’s surface
slide9
Deep Sea
    • Region below epipelagic zone
      • Major portion of global biosphere
    • Life strongly influenced by environmental conditions
    • Conditions
      • Temperature
        • Cold – Typically -1 to 4 oC
      • Pressure
        • Increases by 1 atmosphere (14.7 psi) every 10 m
        • Average depth of oceans – 3800 m = 5600 psi
        • Affects biological molecules – Membranes, enzymes
      • Light
        • Decreases with depth
        • Sunlight present in mesopelagic zone; absent below 1000 m
        • Affects development of eyes
      • Food
        • Scarce
        • Unpredictable in space and time
      • Oxygen
        • Low in some areas but generally not limiting
deepest depth discovered
Deepest depth discovered
  • Marinas Trench: 36161 ft = 6.8 miles
    • Deeper that the highest mountain peak of Mount Everest (29,035 ft)
  • Explored by John Walsh and Jacques Piccard, 1960 (35,800 ft)
  • Used the bathyscape called Trieste
  • 3 inch port cracked under pressure, but they survived
  • Pressure here is more than 11,318 tons/sq m= one person trying to support 50 jumbo jets.
  • Only revisited by ROV since
  • More people have landed on the moon than have been to deepest inner space
deep sea
Deep Sea

Mesopelagic (Midwater)

  • Feeding
    • Availability of food declines rapidly with depth
      • Only 20% of surface primary production reaches mesopelagic zone
      • More mesopelagic organisms beneath productive waters vs. areas with low primary production
    • Small body size (fishes)
    • Large mouth with hinged, extendable jaws (fishes)
    • Needle-like teeth (fishes)
    • Broad diet
slide15
Deep Sea

Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont.

      • Diel vertical migration (DVM)
        • Some species migrate vertically on a diel basis
          • Usually at depth during day; near surface at night
          • Reverse migration also occurs
        • Response to changes in light intensity
        • Possible reasons for DVM
          • Food more abundant in surface waters
          • Visual predators less abundant in deep water
          • Colder deep water facilitates more efficient use of food
        • Consequences
          • Biological pump – Transport of organic matter from surface to deep water
deep sea17
Deep Sea

Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont.

  • Vision
    • Large, sensitive eyes
    • Some squids have one large eye, one small eye
      • Large eye directed upward
    • Some fishes have tubular eyes
      • Enhance light gathering power in one direction
      • Reduced visual acuity in other directions
    • Sensitivity to narrow range of wavelengths (blue-green)
slide18
Deep Sea

Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont.

      • Coloration/Body Shape
        • Body often laterally compressed
          • Reduces size of silhouette when viewed from below
        • Colors
          • Transparent – Difficult to see
          • Silver – Reflects incident light
          • Black – Deeper in mesopelagic
          • Red – Appears gray/black
slide19
Deep Sea

Mesopelagic (Midwater)-cont.

      • Bioluminescence-same light as from fireflies
        • Counterillumination – Breaks up silhouette
        • Species recognition – photophore locations differ by sex
        • Predator avoidance – Bioluminescent ink, etc.
        • Attract prey – Glowing lure
        • Detect prey – Subocular red photophore
slide20
Deep Sea

Bathyal/Abyssal/Hadal

      • Coloration/Body Shape
        • Fishes - Black or beige
        • Crustaceans - Red
        • Bioluminescence common
          • Attracting prey
          • Intraspecific communication
          • Not used for counterillumination (Why not?)
        • Eyes typically very small (exceptions exist)
        • Watery/flabby muscle (no sprinters down here)
slide23
Deep Sea
    • Bathyal/Abyssal/Hadal
      • Food availability
        • Only 5% of primary production reaches bathyal zone
        • Vertical migration very uncommon
        • Animals usually small (exceptions exist)
        • Animals mostly adapted for efficient energy usage
          • Sluggish and sedentary behavior
          • Flabby, watery muscles
          • Weak, poorly calcified skeletons
          • No scales
          • Large mouths
          • Flexible stomachs
deep sea benthos
Deep Sea- Benthos

Food availability

  • Food accumulates at deep sea floor
    • More available than in water column
    • Still unpredictable in space and time
    • Seasonally variable (Why?)
  • Suspension feeders less common than deposit feeders in sediments (Why?)
  • Epifauna usually dominated by
    • Ophiuroids-Brittle stars = Phylum?
    • Holothuroids
    • Echinoids
  • Infauna usually dominated by
    • Nematodes
    • Polychaetes
    • Crustaceans
    • Bivalves
slide26
Deep Sea

Benthos

      • Fishes
        • Roving/Cruising predators
          • May have large eyes
          • Well developed muscles
          • Active swimmers
          • May travel thousands of km
        • Sit and wait predators
          • Usually have small eyes
          • Muscles contain more water than cruisers
          • Poor swimmers
          • Tend to stay in one area
hydrothermal vents like hot springs at yellowstone
Hydrothermal vents – like hot springs at Yellowstone
  • 1970’s: geologists predicted their existence at mid-ocean spreading ridges
  • 1977: ecological communities discovered, 2.5 km (1.55 miles)
  • Chemosynthesis: Base of food chain is bacteria, use hydrogen sulfide as energy, instead of sunlight
  • 90% of all volcanic activity occurs in the oceans.
  • Vents occur where new crust is formed, spreading ridges
  • Water percolates through cracks, heated by magma, explosively rises through cracks
pulsed organic food falls dead whales
Pulsed organic food falls-dead whales
  • Initial colonists
    • Mobile scavengers
    • Skeletonize whale quickly
  • Secondary successors
    • Sedentary and sessile forms
    • Some with endosymbiotic bacteria-use bone lipid as energy source

Bone devouring Osedax spp.

Vesicomya gigas with endosymbionts.

http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/oceanography/faculty/csmith/index.html

A. Baco

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