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DANISH FILM 1896 – 2004

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  1. DANISH FILM1896 – 2004 Palle Schantz LauridsenDept. Of Nordic Studies and Linguistics

  2. What is the lecture about? • Danish Film 1896 to present – an overview. • Focus on popular film (vs Peter Cowie in the Culture Course Reader) • Silent Cinema, 1896 - 1931 • Sound Cinema, 1932 - present • Lars von Trier and the Dogme 95-movement Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  3. Silent cinema – The early years • 1896 • First films shown in Copenhagen • First Danish Film: Peter Elfelt (dir.): Greenland DogsPulling a Sledge (Kørsel med grønlandske Slædehunde) – not shot in Greenland, but in Fælledparken, Østerbro, København 1904 First movie theatre, Kosmorama (Strøget) 1905 First theatre owned by Ole Olsen (Kinografen, McDonald’s, Strøget) 1906 Foundation of Nordisk Films Kompagni by Ole Olsen The Mother in Law of the Anarchist – oldest Danish film preserved in its totality Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  4. Silent Cinema – The first Golden Age • The First Golden Age of Danish Cinema – 1910-1914 • Only French company Pathé was bigger than Nordisk; the erotic melodrama • Stars: • Valdemar Psilander • Asta Nielsen – Danish filmstar with international career (based in Germany) • Afgrunden – The Abyss, 1911 Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  5. Silent Cinema- the decline … • After World War 1: • Decline of Danish film as international phenomenon • 1920’s • Nordisk try international films, ex adaptations of Charles Dickens • New company, Palladium: comic duo: Fy & Bi • Carl Th. Dreyer, born Nilsson – Denmark’s first – and for many years – only internationally known director • Joan of Arc (1928) Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  6. Carl Th. Dreyer • Carl Th. Dreyer, born Nilsson • Denmark’s first – and for many years – only internationally known director (a born Swede, adopted and raised as a Dane, worked internationally) • Some films by Dreyer: • Joan of Arc (1928) • Vampire (1932) • Day of Wrath (1943) • The Word (1955) • Gertrud (1964) Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  7. Sound film - periods • The Classical period – 1930-1972 • Formation of a National Film Culture – the de-internationalisation of Danish filmproduction • The Modern period – 1972 – 1995 • Decline of Film Culture; government subsidies for all parts of film production. • The Reinternationalisation of Danish Cinema – 1995 to present • Oscars, Golden Palms and Silver Bears. Lars von Trier and Dogme 95. International coproduction, films in English Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  8. Sound Film – The Classical Period I • 1930’s • Popular films with singing and dancing (not musicals) • The Danish language is important – Mille, Marie og Mig (Mille, Mary, and I, 1937) • 1940-1945 • German occupation – change in film culture. German and Swedish films take over market. Danish films increasingly popular • 1945-1959 • Normalisation and by a redefinition of normality • Social melodrama (The Soldier and Jenny) • Popular series: Morten Korch adaptations, The Red Horses; family films Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  9. Sound Film – The Classical Period II • 1960-1971 • The emergence of – and battle against – television. Reptilicus (1960) – Americanisation the bad way • Filmic Modernism – new waves around the world • 1969 • The ban against picture pornography is lifted • 1968 – 1983 • 13 films about Olsenbanden, The Olsen Gang. 1998: Film nr. 14 • Olsen Banden ser rødt (The Olsen Gang Sees Red) Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  10. Olsenbanden ser rødt • Elverhøj • Play ’starring’ King Christian IV. The overture contains the royal anthem ”Kong Christian stod ved højen Mast” • Everybody must rise, when the anthem is played • The Royal Theatre • Government subsidised. • Battles between the arts of theatre, opera, ballet, and the technical staff • Olsenbanden: Egon (with cigar), Benny (the tall one), Keld (the short one), Børge (the boy) Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  11. The Reinternationalisation • Oscars • 1987 • Bille August – Pelle the Conqueror • 1988 • Gabriel Axel – Babette’s Feast • Cannes Prizes for Lars von Trier, Thomas Vinterberg • Berlin Prizes for Lone Scherfig International co-productions International language (English) Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  12. Reinternationalisation –Films by Lars von Trier • 1982 Images of Liberation • The Element of Crime • 1987 Epidemic • 1991 Europa • 1996 Breaking the Waves • 1998 The Idiots (Dogme #2) • 2000 Dancer in the Dark • 2003 Dogville Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  13. Dogme 95 DOGME TRAVELS ”Handheld” travels to peoples and churches in selected countries. Travels where not everything is streamlined and planned to every last detail; travels with an element of spontaneity, where the curiosity of the individual traveller is important … Kristeligt Dagblad Nov 12, 2003 Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  14. Dogme 95 – the brand • Erik Aalbæk Jensen, producer • It all started with a lie. We fooled ourselves and others into believing that a new wave was on its way in Danish film. […] Unlike the American film companies we couldn’t afford the heavy artillery. That’s why we had to come up with something else. And this is where religion is a truly good thing, so we stole a few concepts from the religious world. We made a religious set of rules concerning the making of a number of films – and we turned the fact that we had no money to produce them for into a virtue. • […] That’s how the Dogma Concept was invented and marketed as a sort of purification, a purity. As is we had a choise. We didn’t. Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  15. The Dogme 95 movementThe Vow of Chastity • Shooting must be done on location. Props and sets must not be brought in (if a particular prop is necessary for the story, a location must be chosen where this prop is to be found). • The sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa. (Music must not be used unless it occurs where the scene is being shot). • The camera must be hand-held. Any movement or immobility attainable in the hand is permitted. (The film must not take place where the camera is standing; shooting must take place where the film takes place). • The film must be in colour. Special lighting is not acceptable. (If there is too little light for exposure the scene must be cut or a single lamp be attached to the camera). Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  16. The Dogme 95 movementThe Vow of Chastity • Optical work and filters are forbidden. • The film must not contain superficial action. (Murders, weapons, etc. must not occur.) • Temporal and geographical alienation are forbidden. (That is to say that the film takes place here and now.) • Genre movies are not acceptable. • The film format must be Academy 35 mm. • The director must not be credited. Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  17. Dogme 95 - Thomas Vinterberg The Celebration (Dogme #1) Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  18. Dogme 95Thomas Vinterberg – The Celebration Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  19. More at • www.staff.hum.ku.dk/schantz/golden.htm • (on The New Golden Age of Danish Film) • www.staff.hum.ku.dk/schantz/celebration.htm • (on Vinterberg & The Celebration) Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  20. Dogme 95 – and beyond • The Future of Danish Film • talented directors, scriptwriters and actors are in place • cinema attendance has been growing for the last few years – especially for Danish films • government subsidies in all areas of film production, distribution and marketing have gone up drastically • the media of television and film have realized that working together is an advance for both parties • film production companies have become professionalised and focused Palle Schantz Lauridsen

  21. Danish Film 1896 - 2003 • Recent Danish Films on video/DVD – in English • Made by the original Dogme brethren • Thomas Vinterberg : It’s all about Love • Søren Kragh-Jakobsen: Skagerak • Lars von Trier: Dogville • Easy to remember link: • www.staff.hum.ku.dk/schantz/film.ptt THAT’S ALL, FOLKS Palle Schantz Lauridsen