CERAMICS Group 8 Blanco González, José Manuel Gómez Rojo, Vidal Llorente Pérez, Cristina Sanz Moral, Luis Miguel General Process Energy Consumption Water Consumption Water is used in all ceramic processes. It can be used: As a raw material
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Blanco González, José Manuel
Gómez Rojo, Vidal
Llorente Pérez, Cristina
Sanz Moral, Luis Miguel
The principal techniques to consider are in the following fields:
We can reduce energy by the following ways:
It include techniques and measures to prevent diffuse and channeled emissions:
- Is very important to reduce the input of pollutant precursors:
- Addition of Calcium rich additives
- Process optimization, an example is: Reduction of vapour water levels in the kiln gases
Water has in our case a lot of uses:
Objetive is to reduce the use of process water.
To reach these, process optimisation measures and process waste water treatment systems are employed
We have two methods where we can improve the process of manufacturing ceramics:
This could be recycling systems or re-use in other products
This solid process looses can be re-use as raw material.
Applying measures at the source of the noise:
Secondary noise protection measures:
Obviously also gates and windows have to be closed
and cautiously driving reduces the noise emissions.
And last, there is a time-limiting of noise intensive work.
‘Best Available Techniques’ can be divided in two groups:
GENERIC Best Available Techniques refer to the following areas:
BAT are defined for each of these areas.
SECTOR SPECIFIC Best Available Techniques refer to the following areas:
Of the same way, BAT are defined for each of these areas.
Heat transfer is carried by thermal radiation.
Applied in roller hearth kilns and shuttle kilns, not yet proven for tunnel kilns.
→can also be used for drying ceramic ware
The new process waste water system has five modules:
• reduction of personnel costs to 20 % of the original number of staff required through automation
• reduction of energy costs
• reduction in chemical additives
• recovery of re-usable glaze
• reduction of landfill costs.
→lead-free glaze formulations based on alkali boron silicates have been developed by a tableware producer.→annual savings in lead oxide of 60 tonnes. A higher energy requirement is needed for the treatment and recovery of process waste water