Ceramics = Pottery
Artifacts – Ceramic Pottery • Clay deposits • 10,000 years ago • Artifact Most frequently found • Different vessels for different purposes
Potsherds • Sherds vs. Shards • Diagnostics: potsherds used for analysis • Typologies: How was it made and what was it used for? (Shapes Decorations Fabric) • Chronology: When was it made? • Petrography: Where was it made?
Typologies • What part of the pot? • What kind of pot? • What was it used for? • How old are the artifacts?
Who used it and what did they do with it ? • Cooking, storage, eating and drinking • How a site or part of a site was used • Imported pottery was more expensive • trade goods • can indicate affluence • cuisine
Profiles Archaeological illistration Front view Black line for the side wall Bisecting line Shows Inside and outside
Handles Rims Collars Bases Body Potter’s marks Uruk Period Diagnostics
Sherd Count • Handles • Rims • Collars • Bases • Body • Decorated Sort shapes and count
PotSherd Number B 66. IX. 16,113 Unmarked Pottery = BZ artifact # Dig site year excavated grid # year excavated
Amphora The amphora was a two-handled vase used for storage and transport. Krater "mixing-bowl" used for mixing wine with water. Plate – Jar – flat, pedestal or round bottom with or without handle Cooking Pot Thick rim with rounded base Bowl Chalice – drinking vessel Pithoi Large Storage vessel
How Old Are the Sherds? I = Israel (time of King Solomon) 3,000 years old IV = Greek/Persian 2,400 years old BZ = Eastern Roman Empire 1,700 years old IX = Egyptian (time of Pharaoh Tutankhamun) 3,350 years old VII = Israel 2,700 years old
Canaanite Israelite • Bronze Age Lamp • Palestine during the Late Bronze Age is contemporary with Egyptian New Kingdom • http://www.bu.edu/anep/lamps.html
Seriation • What came first and in what order did things occur?
Painted Pottery • Dionysus Holding a Kantharos. • Red-figure • The Berlin Painter • c. 490-480 B.C.