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Behavioral Theories Of Learning. EDU 6303 Psychology of Teaching and Learning. Overview. Definition of learning Pavlov Thorndike Skinner Principles of Behavioral Learning Theory Bandura Meichenbaum. What is learning?.

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behavioral theories of learning

Behavioral Theories Of Learning

EDU 6303

Psychology of Teaching and Learning

  • Definition of learning
  • Pavlov
  • Thorndike
  • Skinner
  • Principles of Behavioral Learning Theory
  • Bandura
  • Meichenbaum
what is learning
What is learning?
  • Learning is usually defined as a change in an individual caused by experience not by reflexes (Slavin, 2003).
  • Unconditioned stimulus – elicits a response automatically
  • Unconditioned response – occurs automatically unconditioned stimulus
  • Neutral stimulus – does not automatically elicit a response, but can become a
  • Conditioned stimulus during
  • Classical conditioning
thorndike law of effect
Thorndike – Law of Effect
  • Thorndike went beyond Pavlov by showing that stimuli that occurred after a behavior had an influence on future behaviors
  • An act that is followed by a favorable effect is more likely to be repeated in similar situations; an act that is followed by unfavorable effect is less likely to be repeated.
  • Skinner’s work focused on the relationship between behavior and its consequences.
  • Operant conditioning – the use of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to change behavior.
  • Skinner Box – allows the study of behavior in a controlled environment.
principles of behavioral learning
Principles of Behavioral Learning
  • Behavior changes according to its immediate consequences (immediacy of consequences is key).
  • Reinforcers – consequences that are likely to increase the frequency of the behavior, i.e., strengthen the behavior.
  • Primary reinforcers – satisfy basic human needs.
  • Secondary reinforcers acquire their value for being associated with primary reinforcers.
principles continued
Principles (continued)
  • Shaping – guiding behavior toward goals by reinforcing the many steps that lead to success.
  • Extinction – removing reinforcers from previously learned behavior until the behavior disappears.
  • Extinction burst – the increase in levels of behavior in the early stages of extinction.
principles continued9
Principles (continued)
  • Positive reinforcement – are usually things given to students that they value, e.g., praise.
  • Negative reinforcement – escape from an unpleasant or a way of preventing unpleasant behavior from occurring.
principles continued10
Principles (continued)
  • Punishment – consequences that weaken behavior; punishment like reinforcement is in the eye of the receiver and the impact on behavior.
principles continued11
Principles (continued)
  • Removal punishment – forbidding a desirable task or situation;
  • Presentation punishment (aversive stimulus) – imposing an undesirable task or situation; and
  • No reinforcement discourage behaviors.
  • However, positive reinforcement generally works better to shape behavior than punishment.
principles continued12
Principles (continued)
  • Premack principle (grandma’s rule) – you can encourage less-desired (to the individual by linking them to a desired behavior.
  • Intrinsic motivators – behaviors that people enjoy for the pleasure of the behavior.
  • Extrinsic motivators – rewards given to people to motivate them to engage in behavior that they might not engage in otherwise.
schedules of reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Fixed interval – reinforcer is given after a fixed number of behaviors. (Fixed ratio schedules are effective in motivating individuals to do a great deal of work especially with high requirements for reinforcement
schedules of reinforcement14
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Variable interval –variable number of behaviors are necessary for reinforcement. This reinforcement schedule is very effective for maintaining a high rate of behavior and are highly resistant to extinction.
schedules of reinforcement15
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Fixed interval schedule – reinforcement is available on at certain times - can encourage cramming, e.g., end of grade test.
schedules of reinforcement16
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Variable interval – reinforcement is available at some times, but not at others – spot checks
  • Some behaviors that have been acquired through reinforcement become intrinsically motivating, e.g., reading, soccer.
  • Variable interval schedules produce behaviors that are resistant to extinction.
role of antecedents
Role of Antecedents
  • Cueing – antecedent behavior or cues tell people what behavior will be reinforced
  • Discrimination is the use of cues, signals, or information to know when behavior is likely to be reinforced – learning is largely a matter of mastering more and more complex discriminations.
  • Is the transfer of behavior under one set of conditions to other situations.
  • Generalization must be planned for; it is most likely to occur across similar settings or similar concepts.
  • It is more likely to occur is using many relevant examples.
  • The instruction is repeated in a variety of settings.
social learning theory
Social Learning Theory
  • Bandura and observational learning – he noted that Skinnerian emphasis of the consequences of behavior largely ignored the phenomena of modeling – the imitation of others.
  • Observational learning involves four phases:
social learning theory21
Social Learning Theory
  • Attentional phase – the first phase of observational learning is paying attention to model.
  • Retention phase – once teachers have students’ attention, it is time to model the behavior they want the students to imitate and then give students a chance to practice and rehearse.
social learning theory22
Social Learning Theory
  • Reproduction phase – student’s try to match their behavior to the model’s.
  • Motivational phase – students will imitate a model because they believe that doing so will increase their own chances of being reinforced.
social learning theory23
Social Learning Theory
  • Vicarious Learning - People learn in this process learn by seeing other people rewarded or punished.
  • Self-regulation – people can observe their own behavior, judge it against their own standards, and reinforce or punish themselves.
social learning theory24
Social Learning Theory
  • Meichenbaum’s model of self regulated learning argues that students can be taught to monitor and regulate their own behavior, which is often called cognitive behavior modification.
michenbaum s model of self regulated learning
Michenbaum’s Model of Self-Regulated Learning
  • An adult model performs a task while talking to self out loud (cognitive modeling).
  • The child performs the same task under the direction of the model’s instructions (overt, external guidance).
  • The child performs the task while instructing self aloud (overt, self-guidance).
michenbaum s model of self regulated learning26
Michenbaum’s Model of Self-Regulated Learning
  • The child whispers instructions to self as he or she goes through the task (faded, overt self-guidance).
  • The child performs the task while guiding his or her performance via private speech (covert self-instruction).
strengths and limitations of behavioral learning theories
Strengths and Limitations of Behavioral Learning Theories
  • The basic principles are as firmly established as any in psychology and have been demonstrated under many different conditions.
  • However, the theories only deal with observable behavior.
  • In some ways in complements cognitive theories of learning.
  • Slavin, R. E. (2003). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice, 7th Edition.