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The Swedish Model “Vision Zero” Authors Matts-Åke Belin Roger Johansson Anders Lie (presenting) Claes Tingvall The Swedish Road Administration Content Vision Zero, five dimensions Alcohol in traffic, problems and actions Development Sweden Killed in Sweden 1935 - 2004 1 400 5 000 000
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Swedish Road Administration The Swedish Model “Vision Zero” Authors Matts-Åke Belin Roger Johansson Anders Lie (presenting) Claes Tingvall The Swedish Road Administration
Swedish Road Administration Content • Vision Zero, five dimensions • Alcohol in traffic, problems and actions
Swedish Road Administration Development Sweden Killed in Sweden 1935 - 2004 1 400 5 000 000 cars killed 4 500 000 1 200 4 000 000 1 000 3 500 000 3 000 000 800 2 500 000 600 2 000 000 1 500 000 400 1 000 000 200 500 000 0 0 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Swedish Road Administration The current road transport system • Major mismatch between components of the system • Trade-off between health and benefits allowed • Unclear responsibilities • Unclear safety philosophy • Weak driving forces for change
History On October 9, 1997 the Road Traffic Safety Bill founded on "Vision Zero" was passed by a large majority in the Swedish Parliament. This represents an entirely new way of thinking with respect to road traffic safety. Goal The long term goal is that no-one shall be killed or seriously injured within the Swedish road transport system. Swedish Road Administration VISION ZERO : A SAFE TRAFFIC CONCEPT
Swedish Road Administration Vision Zero ≠ Zero Fatalities(At least not only)Vision Zero = 5 dimensions(or more?) vision for many stakeholder ethical platform shared responsibility safety philosophy driving forces for change
Swedish Road Administration Vision for many stakeholder • Traffic safety is a shared responsibility for many stakeholders • A joint vision is a powerful tool to focus the work • A vision sets out a future desired situation - not a step by step action with no definition of it’s end point
Swedish Road Administration Ethical platform • Human life and health is paramount • Life and health can not, in the long run, be traded against other benefits • Mobility is a function of the safety level
Swedish Road Administration Shared responsibility • Historically main responsibility on the road user • In Vision Zero the responsibility is shared between road users and system designers
Swedish Road Administration Shared responsibility System designers are responsible for the design, operation and the use of the road transport system and are thereby responsible for the level of safety within the entire system. Road users are responsible for following the rules for using the road transport system set by the system designers. If the users fail to comply with these rules due to a lack of knowledge, acceptance or ability, the system designers are required to take the necessary further steps to counteract people being killed or injured.
Swedish Road Administration System designers = everyone that influences the design, function and use of the road transport system politicians community planners road managers municipal authorities vehicle manufacturers transport companies and everyone who professionally uses roads and streets police rescue forces occupational health and safety authorities and more
Swedish Road Administration Shared responsibility Road user System designers
Swedish Road Administration Safety Philosophy ”Any well functioning man-machine system brings the failing human into the loop”. ”Blaming the victim approach is a catastrophe to prevention”.
Swedish Road Administration Safety philosophy • Inspiration from other areas ( i.e. occupational health and safety) • People make errors, mistakes and misjudgements • There are biomechanical tolerance limits • The chain of events can be cut at many places • Focus on injuries not crashes
Swedish Road Administration Classification of fatal crashesSweden 1998/1999
Swedish Road Administration Impaired driving – alcohol, illegal drugs and fatigue”
Swedish Road Administration Impaired driving • Alcohol • Fatigue • Drugs (illegal) • Medicine • Distraction
Swedish Road Administration Impaired driving The Commission is currently conducting a review into the European Road Safety Action Programme and will, at the beginning of 2006, draw up an assessment of measures which have been taken at the European and Member State levels. Without pre-empting the conclusions of this assessment, it seems clear that the main causes of accidents remain speeding, the non-wearing of seat belts and helmets and alcohol/ drugs/ fatigue:
Swedish Road Administration Alcohol in road traffic Many road crashes are related to alcohol. The proportion is growing with crash severity In Europe it is estimated that 25% of the severe crashes are related to alcohol.
Swedish Road Administration Alcohol in Swedish traffic Even very small amounts of alcohol can affect your driving ability. Sweden has a very strict law that entitles the Police to give a Breathalyzer test, even if there is no reason to suspect that you are driving under the influence of alcohol. If your blood level alcohol content is 0.2 promille or the content of alcohol in your exhaled breath is 0.10mg/l or more, this will result in a stiff fine, a prison sentence or both. You will also lose your driving license. Alcohol also remains in your system the day after you drink it. When attending a party in a Swedish home, it is customary for the hostess to ask who's driving; and non-alcoholic beverages are always provided. Do Not Drink and Drive. American Women's Club in Sweden
25 20 15 Number 10 5 0 15-24 years 25-34 years 35-44 years 45-54 years 55-64 years 65- years Swedish Road Administration Drunk driver sorted by age, Fatal crashes Sweden 2002
30 25 20 Number 15 10 5 0 0,1-0,19 0,2-0,9 1,0-1,9 2,0-2,9 3,0- No Report Report Swedish Road Administration Blood Alcohol Levels and Police Report. Fatal crashes Sweden 2002
Swedish Road Administration Alcohol/non-alcohol related crashes to crash type. Fatal crashes Sweden 2002 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Single car Other Head on Rear end Overtaking Pedestrians Intersections Alcohol related Non-alcohol related
Swedish Road Administration Fatigue Many road crashes are related to fatigue. The proportion is growing with crash severity In Europe it is estimated that 20% of the severe crashes are related to fatigue.
Swedish Road Administration When road and rules are important Normal driving Dangerous situation Health treatment Access Crash
Swedish Road Administration Approaches • Citizens/drivers • Surveillance • Rehabilitation • Technique in cars • Road design
Swedish Road Administration Main areas • Driver acceptance • Police surveillance/enforcement • Alcohols starter interlocks
Swedish Road Administration Driver acceptance • Information • Low levels 0.2 per mille BAC • Focus young drivers • Less than 0,5 % with alcohol
Road user behaviour Alcohol X X Seat belts Technical phase Speeds Rules and control phase X Cycle helmet X Information phase Time Swedish Road Administration Social development
Swedish Road Administration Police surveillance / enforcement • Random breath testing (1760 000 in 2005) (5,7 million drivers with licence) • Anywhere, anytime and any policeman (more than 99,5 % without alcohol) • Well documented benefits
Normal driving Dangerous situation Health treatment Crash Swedish Road Administration Alcohol starter interlocks • Rehabilitation Programme • Commercial transports • Private cars Access
Swedish Road Administration Rehabilitation programme • Used by DWI offenders in rehabilitation programmes. • A lock that is difficult to manipulate with a reliable and accurate alcohol measuring. A log stores all the events and there is a possibility for retests at random time intervals. • Approximately 500 units per year • Very positive results for highly motivated drivers • Focus the highest need
Swedish Road Administration Commercial transport • Used to ensure sober drivers • Transport companies, taxi, school buses, traffic schools etc • Demanded by for example Swedish Road Administration • Around 10 000 units in traffic • Focus the highly motivated on a market • Create a market for safe transports
Swedish Road Administration www.mhf.se
Swedish Road Administration • Volvo Cars and Saab Automobile are developing new products with support from Swedish Road Administration
Swedish Road Administration Private cars • Strong political will • High public acceptance • Development needs • Sweden wants to be test market
Swedish Road Administration The Swedish Commission on alcolocks (N 2004:16) The Commission on alcolocks (N 2004:16) has an assignment from the Government to investigate the possibilities to introduce demands for alkolocks or other devices to prevent drunk driving in all new cars registered in Sweden by the year 2012 at the latest. We want an earlier introduction of an alkolock obligation for buses and lorries by 2010. The Commission will also look into the steps to be taken to increase the acceptance and use of alcolocks.
Swedish Road Administration Impaired driving, challenges Price and handling must suite high volume introduction Can systems be developed that can handle all kinds of impaired driving? (Alcohol, fatigue, illegal drugs etc.) What should the car do when impaired/dangerous driving is detected? Legal obstacles, responsibility etc.
Swedish Road Administration Sectors must co-operate • Research • Industry • Public authorities • Drivers • Transport buyers • Occupational Health and Safety • The public • Politicians • National and international
Swedish Road Administration The Swedish Model “Vision Zero” Anders.firstname.lastname@example.org www.vv.se www.mhf.se
Swedish Road Administration A Review of the Literature on the Effects of Low Doses of Alcohol on Driving-Related Skills, H. Moskowitz, D. Fiorentino, U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, USA • Alcohol impairs some driving skills beginning with any significant departure from zero BAC. By BACs of 0.05 g/dl, the majority of the experimental studies examined reported significant impairment. By 0.08 g/dl, more than 94% of the studies reviewed exhibited skills impairment. • Specific performance skills are differentially affected by alcohol. Some skills are significantly impaired by BACs of 0.01 g/dl, while others do not show impairment until BACs of 0.06 g/dl. • Discrepancies between the reported BAC threshold of impairment within a behavioral area reflected a lack of standardization of testing methods, instruments, and measures in the studies reviewed. • All drivers are expected to experience impairment in some driving-related skills by 0.08 g/dl or less.