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API Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System Presentation for: IMEAC San Antonio, Texas April 2001 PowerPoint Presentation
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API Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System Presentation for: IMEAC San Antonio, Texas April 2001 R.C. (Dick) Clark 1220 L St NW Washington, DC 20005 Phone 1 202 682 8182 Fax 1 202 682 8051 e-mail clarkd@api.org Presentation Outline History of Engine Oils

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
API Engine Oil Licensingand Certification System

Presentation for:

IMEAC

San Antonio, Texas

April 2001

slide2
R.C. (Dick) Clark

1220 L St NW

Washington, DC 20005

Phone 1 202 682 8182

Fax 1 202 682 8051

e-mail clarkd@api.org

presentation outline
Presentation Outline

History of Engine Oils

Benefits of Licensing

“S” Categories & “C” Categories

Summary

api s engine oil program
API’s Engine Oil Program
  • Voluntary program
  • Agreement between API and U.S. automobile manufacturers
  • Licenses the use of API Marks
  • Performance requirements cooperatively established
api s engine oil program5
API’s Engine Oil Program
  • Licensing
    • Based on performance
    • Composition not a requirement
  • Data filed by Licensees
    • related to performance
history of engine oil licensing
History of Engine Oil Licensing

Pre 1947: Oils classified by SAE J300 viscosity grade only

1947: API defined three categories

Regular Straight mineral oil

Premium Mineral oil with oxidation inhibitors

Heavy Duty Mineral oil with oxidation inhibitors and detergent/dispersants

1952: API defined categories for gasoline and diesel

ML, MM, MS for gasoline engines

DG, DM, DS for diesel engines

licensing history continued
Licensing History Continued

1960: API added Sequence Testing to requirements

Still no precise definitions of performance

Company specifications and Mil specifications used

1970: API, ASTM, SAE developed present classification system

S and C categories introduced

1993: EOLCS launched

CMA Code of Practice instituted

Today’s licensing program started

slide8
Licensed Marks

API Certification Mark “Starburst”

API Service Symbol “Donut”

engine oil program s value
Engine Oil Program’s Value

For government

  • Stakeholders provide cost-effective, self-regulatory program
  • Audit program encourages careful quality control and provides demonstration of oil quality
  • Performance requirements complement government environmental initiatives and standards
  • Approved oils help to conserve energy
engine oil program s value10
Engine Oil Program’s Value

For consumers

  • Identifies products that satisfy auto manufacturer recommendations
  • Provides user-friendly product information and recognizable symbols
  • Provides a choice of quality products from which consumers may choose
  • Helps conserve energy
  • Offers rigorous monitoring of products in market
how are consumers encouraged to look for api marks
How Are Consumers Encouraged to Look for API Marks ?
  • Vehicle operator’s & maintenance manuals
  • Oil marketing advertisements
  • API brochures, website, and literature
  • Media sources (Consumer Reports,OEM Off-Highway,Equipment World)
slide16

How Are Engine Oil Performance Standards Created in U.S?

Engine Builders

Define the Need

Oil Industry(API)

Licenses Standards

New Engine Oil Performance Standard

Technical Societies

(ASTM & SAE)

Develop Standards

Additive Industry

(CMA)

Provides Technology

passenger car categories
Passenger Car Categories

Category Years AKA Major Distinctions

SA Pre 1930 ML

SB 1930–1963 MM

SC 1964–1967 MS

SD 1968–1971

SE 1972–1979

SF 1980–1988

SG 1989–1993 Fuel economy and phos limits

SH 1994–1996 CMA Code & EOLCS

SJ 1996 Lower phos, tighter volatility, fuel economy

SL 2001 New wear & oxidation tests, tighter volatility, improved fuel economy

current api passenger car engine oil categories
Current API Passenger Car Engine Oil Categories
  • API GF-2: Designed for improved fuel economy, improved emissions system durability, and increased performance over GF-1
  • API SJ: Designed for improved emissions system durability and increased performance over API SH
  • Energy Conserving: Denotes engine oils that meet fuel economy performance requirements
requirements for api energy conserving
Requirements for API Energy Conserving
  • API SJ
  • Sequence VIA engine test for fuel economy
gf 3 sl the next category
GF-3/SL The Next Category
  • Performance enhancements targeted toward a longer category lifespan:
    • Improved fuel economy and its retention
    • Improved emissions system protection
    • Improved high temperature deposits and foaming control and general increased “robustness”
    • Lower oil consumption
gf 3 engine tests
GF-3 Engine Tests
  • Ball Rust Test engine rusting
  • Sequence IIIF oil thickening, wear, and high temperature piston deposits

(represents ~7,500 mile oil drain)

  • Sequence IVA valve train wear
  • Sequence VG low temperature sludge and varnish
  • Sequence VIB fuel economy (new and used oil)

(4,000 to 6,000 miles of use)

  • Sequence VIII bearing corrosion (unleaded fuel)
  • TEOST MHT high temperature deposits
more demanding gf 3 bench tests
More Demanding GF-3Bench Tests
  • Tighter volatility limits by evaporation loss and simulated distillation
  • Tighter high temperature foaming limits
  • 50% max flow reduction on modifiedGM EOFT
heavy duty categories
Heavy Duty Categories

Category Years AKA Major Distinctions

CA Pre 1961 DG

CB 1949–1960 DM

CC 1961–1990 DM

CD 1955–1990 DS

CE 1987–1995

CD-II 1987–1995

CF-4 1990 High-speed, 4-stroke

CF-2 1994 CMA Code & EOLCS; severe-duty, 2-stroke

CF 1994 Off-highway, higher sulfur fuels

CG-4 1995 On-highway, high-speed; 1994 emissions

CH-4 1998 On-highway, high-speed; 1998 emissions

PC-9 2002 On-highway, high-speed; 2004 emissions

api cf 1994
API CF 1994

Off-road, indirect-injected engines

including those using fuel with over 0.5% sulfur.

  • Caterpillar 1M-PC piston deposits
  • L-38 bearing corrosion
api cf 2 1994
API CF-2 1994

Severe-duty, 2-stroke engines

  • Caterpillar 1M-PC piston deposits
  • Detroit Diesel 6V 92TA liner scuffing, port plugging, ring distress
  • L-38 bearing corrosion
api cf 4 1990
API CF-4 1990

High-speed, 4-stroke,

naturally aspirated and turbo-charged engines

  • Caterpillar 1K piston deposits, oil consumption
  • L-38 bearing corrosion
  • Mack T-6 ring wear, deposits
  • Mack T-7 viscosity increase
  • Cummins NTC-400 oil consumption, piston deposits
  • Bench Tests Cummins corrosion bench test (bearing)
api cg 4 1995
API CG-4 1995

High-speed, 4-stroke engines

Used in highway/off-road applications,

Meets 1994 U.S. emissions standards

  • Caterpillar 1N piston deposits, oil consumption
  • Mack T-8 viscosity increase due to soot (3.8%)
  • L-38 bearing corrosion
  • Sequence IIIE oil oxidation
  • GM 6.5 liter roller follower wear
  • Navistar HEUI oil aeration
  • Bench Tests D892 foaming & CCBT corrosion
api ch 4 1998
API CH-4 1998

High-speed, 4-stroke engines

Meets 1998 U.S. emissions standards

  • Caterpillar 1K 1990 piston deposits, oil consumption
  • Caterpillar 1P 1994 piston deposits, oil consumption
  • Mack T-8E viscosity increase due to soot (4.8%)
  • Mack T-9 ring liner and bearing wear
  • Sequence IIIE oil oxidation
  • Cummins M-11 valve train wear, filterability, sludge
  • GM 6.5 Liter roller follower wear
  • Navistar HEUI oil aeration
  • Bench Tests D892 foaming, CCBT corrosion, D2945 shear stability, D5800 volatility
api heavy duty categories
API Heavy-Duty Categories

Drivers for change

  • New engine designs to meet environmental regulations
  • Globalization of engine technology
  • Diverse applications
us government emissions regulations
US Government Emissions Regulations
  • 1994 API CG-4
  • 1998 API CH-4
  • 2002 PC-9
  • 200X? PC-X?
    • For use with ultra-low-sulfur fuels
pc 9 driving force
PC-9 Driving Force
  • New emissions targets must be met by October 1, 2002
  • Engine builders are using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) to achieve goal within time frame
api pc 9 challenges
API PC-9 Challenges
  • EGR will add combustion by-products back into engine
  • Oil sump temperatures expected to rise 40–60ºF
  • Engine builders have concerns about elastomer compatibility
how does api ensure that licensed products meet standards
How Does API Ensure That Licensed Products Meet Standards?

After-Market Audit Program (AMAP)

  • Purchases samples of licensed products from marketplace
  • Tests samples to verify that they conform to originally licensed formulations & meet requirements
  • Requires corrective action in thecase of non-complying results
summary
Summary
  • API and its “Quality” marks 80+ years
  • EOLCS
    • Provides a standard of reference for engine oil performance.
    • Worldwide participation
    • Only engine oil certification system with enforcement