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Backlash by Chechen rebels using terrorist tactics against Russian cities ... Chechen females have participated in many of the terrorist bombing ...

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European Russia

Joseph Herro

[email protected]

Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe)

Professor Zoltan Grossman

University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

Spring 2005

Tension, Disilutionment, and Hope in the Age of Uncertainty

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“Threat” from Muslim South

“Threat” from U.S. led


“Threat” from Within



Pop Culture



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Karelians in Karelia

Komi Republic

Chuvash in Chuvashia

Tartars in Tartarstan

Bashkirs in Bashkortostan

Main Ethnic Republics in Russia

These Republics Have Their Own Autonomy (not

independence) And Live At Peace With Russia. However, “Threats” Persist From The Muslim South

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Ethnic Conflict and War in Chechnya

  • Human rights abuses by Russian Soldiers

  • Gozny flattened in 2000

  • Deported Chechens

  • Labeled “anti-terrorist operation”

  • Backlash by Chechen rebels using terrorist tactics against Russian cities

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Female Suicide Terrorist

  • Chechen females have participated in many of the terrorist bombing

  • within Russia. The Russian public has named these woman

  • “Black Widows” due to the death and destruction they have wrought

  • on Russian civilians.

  • These woman themselves are said to have lost everything in the

    Chechen war. With their husbands and male family members dead,

    some of these women extremists have taken vengeance for their family.

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    Moscow Theater

    The Destruction

    October 2002

    40 armed terrorist, 18 of which

    were woman took 900 people

    hostage in Moscow Theater

    Russian Special Forces pumped

    a narcotic gas in the theater.

    After the gas was used they

    raided the theater…….

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    The gas killed 129 hostages. The rebels who were

    passed out due to the gas were shoot In the head

    because of the danger of explosives strapped to

    them. Others were killed or seized in a shootout.

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    Rock Festival Bombing

    July 2003

    Two Female Suicide Bombers

    kill 16 people at a rock festival

    near Moscow

    Two Airplane Crashes

    August 25 2004

    90 people dead after terrorist bombs

    crashed two airplanes. Two female

    Chechen passengers believed to have brought explosives onboard.

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    Moscow Metro Attack

    August 31 2004

    A female Suicide Bomber Kills Ten People

    Russian Reaction to Terrorism

    • Chechnya always Blamed for Bombings

    • Apartment bombings in1999were controversial; was it the Chechens

    • or the Russian intelligence operators caught planting the bombs?

    • Retaliatory strikes on Chechnya

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    • US War on Islamic Terrorists after 9/11

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    Russia NO Longer Posses a Threat to Eastern

    Europe Which NATO Could Counterbalance

    • Russia Cannot Produce a Military Treat Since Cold War

    BBC News

    World: Europe“Russia's army: Demoralized

    and ill-equipped”

    Low morale taking its toll on the armed forces

    • Russia’s Military is in Debt, Demoralized, and Overstretched

    • Due to Conflict in Chechnya and Tajikistan

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    Deployment of NATO Troops on Russian

    Borders only Antagonizes Russia.

    Ivanov Questions NATO's Air Patrols

    ST. PETERSBURG -- Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov on Saturday criticized NATO's expansion into three former Soviet states on the Baltic Sea and warned that NATO warplanes flying patrols over those countries create a risk of accidental incidents.

    The Moscow Monday, August 16, 2004. Page 1.

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    Stationing NATO Troops Near the

    Russian Border Brings into Question

    If NATO is Positioning itself Against

    Russia Instead of Maintaining Internal

    Stability in the Bordering Republics.

    Protest against NATO Bombing In Serbia, 1999

    Protest against war in Iraq, 2003

    This Could Obstruct Democratic Development

    and Aid in Arousing Russian Nationalism?

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    Weakened Military + Antagonism + Rise of Nationalism =

    Increased Threat of Nuclear Conflict in Europe

    Both the Drained Military Strength and Antagonism Over Deployment of NATO Troops Near Its Borders Could Necessitate Russia to Depend on Its Stockpile of Nuclear Weapons

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    BBC News

    Thursday, April 29, 1999 Published at 15:16 GMT 16:16 UK

    “Russia re-affirms nuclear commitment”

    • Did not Sign START II Treaty in 1999

    Did sign Moscow Treaty in 2002

    Nuclear Complex’s of Russia

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    Solution to the NATO Threat

    Make Russia a Member of NATO

    Remove the outdated divisions of

    The Cold War By Expanding NATO

    • Already the NATO-Russian Pact 1997

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    Putin Clamps Down on Democracy

    • Centralized Power

    • Inside Kremlin

    • Putin to Appoint

    • rather than allow

    • elections of

    • Governors

    • “Bolster trends toward limits on civil society” and “A greater assertiveness“


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    • Taken strides to appropriate

    • businesses

    • Yukos, Russia's main oil entity

    • is taken over by the state using

    • corruption as an excuse

    • Putin Angry with U.S. “Interference

    • in Ukrainian Election”

    • This Year, Russia and China are

    • joining in unprecedented joint

    • military exercises.


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    Broad backlash to Putin reforms

    “The Russian president is losing popular support over

    his pension reforms and 'managed democracy”

    The Christian Science Monitor

    • Reforms Replaced

    • Soviet era benefits

    • Law replaces transportation and some medical benefits for pensioners with cash payments

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    Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice

    Visits Russia

    April 20th 2005

    • Issues on the Table

    • Centralized Power

    • Limits to Independent Broadcast Media

    • Third Term For Putin

    • Eye of World Watching Yukos Case

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    Social Issues


    U.S. Ambassador to Russia, Alexander Vershbow’s

    View on Piracy in Russia

    • Piracy involving music, films and software products

    • cripple progress in cultural and scientific areas

    • Artist cannot sell music

    • In order to attract high tech foreign

    • investment, and to protect musicians

    • at home the government must

    • institute laws protecting intellectual

    • property rights

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    Is T.A.T.O. too Provocative

    for Russian’s ?

    Or is Western Influences?

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    Communism to


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    • Growth Rate:

    • (2004 est.) -0.45%

    • (2005 est.) -0.37%

    • Birth Rate:

    • (2004 est.) 9.63 births/1000

    • 206th in the world

    • (2005 est.) 9.8 births/1000

    • still 206th in the world

    • Death Rate:

    • (2004 est.) 15.17 deaths/1000

    • 29th in the world

    • (2005 est.) 14.52 deaths/1000

    • 33rd in the world!

    • CIA World Fact Book

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    • What do these population statistics mean ?

    • Low fertility rate:

    • (2004 est.)1.26 children born/woman 218th

    • in the world

    • (2005 est.)1.27 children born/woman, still

    • 218th in world

    • High death rate:

    • (2004 & 2005 est.) Life expectancy at birth

    • only 67 years

    • CIA World Fact Book

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    Population Cont.

    • Also contributing factors

    • Rural Famines:

    • 1920s and 30s

    • Stalin’s Collectivization

    • War:

    • Millions lost in World War II (80% of Allied Deaths)

    • Abortion:

    • Highest abortion rate in the world

    • 2 abortions to every 1 live birth

    Health Minister Yurii Sevchenko:

    "Only about 20 percent of the population is healthy,"

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    Population Cont.

    • Health problems:

    • Air and water pollution

    • Environmental hazards

    • Alcoholism (esp. males)

    • AIDS (huge rise in growth rate)

    • Drugs

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    • Chechen terrorist in Russia

      “Chechen Based Terrorist,” Council on Foreign Relations, 2004 (Date last accessed 4/14/05).

      “Chechen Terrorist Actions,” Public Opinion Foundation Database, 2003 (Date last accessed 4/14/05).

      Splidsboel-Hansen, Flemming. “The Official Russian Concept of Contemporary Central Asian Islam: The Security Dimension.” Europe-Asian Studies 49, no. 8 (1997) : 1501-1517

    • Russian Reaction to Chechen terrorist

      “Russian Siege Footage: Your reaction,” BBC News, 2004. (Date last accessed 4/14/05).

      Cornell, Svante E. “International Reaction to Massive Human Rights Violations: The Case of Chechnya.” Europe-Asia Studies 51, no. 2 (1999) : 85-100

    • NATO/Russian Relations

      Blagov, Sergei. “Russia Views N.A.T.O Expansion as Strategic Threat,” PINR, 2004

      (Date last accessed 4/15/05).

      McCalla, Robert B. “NATO’s Persistence after the Cold War.” International Organization 50, no. 3 (1996) : 445-475

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    Lovetsky, Dmitry. “Broad backlash to Putin reforms,” The Christian Science Monitor, 2005 (Date last accessed 4/12/05).

    “Travel to Europe,” (sic, Rice’s Russian and Europe trip) U.S. Department of State, 2005 last accessed 4/22/05).

    Herd, Graeme P. “Russia and the Politics of Putinism.” Journal of Peace Research 38,no. 1 (2001) : 107-112

    • Social Issues

      “Vershbow Urges Russia to Enforce Intellectual Property Rights,” International Information Programs, 2003 244490.html (Date last accessed 4/12/05).

      Population statistics (growth, birth, death, and fertility rate) derived from CIA World Fact Book

      Rural famines, war, and abortion statistics derived from: “Country Studies,” Library of Congress, 1996 (Date last accessed 4/30/05).

      “Only 20 percent of Russians Healthy,” CDI Russian Weekly, 2003

      (Date last accessed 4/23/05).

    • Photos

      Photos taken from,, and image sites. Examples of headings used to find images were “Russia,” “terrorism in Russia,” “NATO expansion,” etc. I also copied pictures from news articles pertinent to issues in my presentation.