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Roots of the Conflict- religion, ethnicity and colonialism. Normans in Ireland- 1169 ... Initial Reaction of British Government to Violence in Northern Ireland ...

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roots of the conflict religion ethnicity and colonialism
Roots of the Conflict- religion, ethnicity and colonialism
  • Normans in Ireland- 1169
  • Plantation of Ulster- 16th century
  • Act of Settlement 1653
  • Accession of James II 1685
  • William of Orange ascends to British throne
roots of the conflict c ntd
Roots of the Conflict c’ntd
  • Penal Laws introduced from 1695 onwards
  • 1782- Irish Parliament received legislative independence
  • Development of Peep O’ Day Boys, Defenders, Orange Order
  • 1798- United Irishmen Rebellion
  • 1800- Act of Union
  • 1829- Catholic Emancipation
independence of ireland
Independence of Ireland
  • Struggle for land reforms – 1870s & 1880s
  • Irish Parliamentary Party – 1882
  • Home Rule – 1st attempt – 1885

2nd attempt – 1893

3rd attempt - 1914

partition
Partition
  • World War One – 1914
  • Government of Ireland Act – 1920
  • Irish War of Independence – 1919-1921
1921 1963
1921-1963
  • The new NI Parliament- unstable at first, financial and political difficulties as well as inexperienced government ministers
  • Catholics took little part in new NI state- electoral discrimination, grievances in housing, policing and employment.

“A Protestant state for a Protestant people”

reasons for unrest
Reasons for unrest
  • 1963- arrival of Terence O’Neill as Prime Minister. Introduction of reforms. Attracted opposition from within his party as well as from Ian Paisley
  • Catholics encouraged by success of Civil Rights movement in America
  • Formation of NICRA
  • By the late 60s the peaceful protests had begun to take on a more violent nature
initial reaction of british government to violence in northern ireland
Initial Reaction of British Government to Violence in Northern Ireland
  • 1969- British troops sent to Northern Ireland
  • 1970- Curfews, house searches
  • 1971- Internment
  • 1972- Bloody Sunday
  • Following this Direct Rule from Westminster was re-instated
responses to terrorism
Responses to Terrorism
  • Power-sharing, Sunningdale – 1973-74
  • Rolling Devolution – 1982-84
  • Anglo Irish Agreement – 1985
  • Downing Street Declaration - 1993
looking forward
Looking forward
  • Good Friday Agreement – 1998
good friday agreement
Good Friday Agreement
  • Human Rights and Equality
  • Early release of terrorist prisoners
  • Decommissioning of paramilitary weapons
  • Reforms of criminal justice and policing.
good friday agreement con t
Good Friday Agreement, con’t
  • Three strands,
  • 1. Creation of Northern Ireland Assembly
  • 2. North-South Relationships
  • 3. East-West Relationships
prospects for a functioning local democracy
Prospects for a Functioning Local Democracy
  • Many issues still need to be resolved, such as policing, decommissioning and prisoner releases
  • Remaining hostility between political parties
  • Northern Bank robbery- suspected IRA involvement having knock-on effect for Sinn Fein- withdrawal of funding
prospects for a functioning local democracy19
Prospects for a Functioning Local Democracy
  • Hopes for the future
  • Inclusive government
  • Economic development
  • Development in inter-community cultural awareness eg. through integrated schools, cross community initiatives such as BEI
  • Equal opportunity programs
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