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2 / HR

Managing Work Flows and Conducting Job Analysis


Challenges l.jpg
Challenges

  • Describe bureaucratic, flat, and boundaryless organizational structures and the business environments in which each is most appropriate.

  • List the factors influencing worker motivation that are under managers’ control.

  • Conduct job analysis and prepare job descriptions and specifications.

  • Apply flexible work designs to situations in which employees have conflicts between work and family, or employers face fluctuating demand for their products.

  • Develop policies and procedures to protect human resource information system data so that employees’ privacy rights are maintained.


Organizational structures l.jpg
Organizational Structures

United States Army

General

Colonels

Majors

Captains and Lieutenants

Warrant Officers

Sergeants

Corporals

Privates


Organizational structures cont l.jpg
Organizational Structures (cont.)

A Typical Law Firm

Chief Partner

Partners

Associates


Organizational structures cont5 l.jpg
Organizational Structures (cont.)

Alliance of three companies that pool their resources to produce a new product, such as a computer chip.

Company A

Company B

Company C


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Work Flow Analysis

The process of examining how work creates or adds value to the ongoing processes in a business.


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Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

A fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed.


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Processing a Loan Application at IBM Credit Corporation Before and After Business Process Engineering

Work Flow Using Specialists

Customer

Service

Receptionist

Credit

Checker

Business

Practices

Specialist

Admini-

strator

To

Cus-

tomer

Pricer

Log in call

from sales

rep

Do credit

check on

customer

Modify std.

loan

covenant

based on

cust. req.

Compute

interest

rate on loan

Convert

information

into a quote

letter

Work Flow After Business Process Reengineering

Deal

Structurer

To

Customer

Use sophisticated computer program

to process entire loan application


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Tips on Managing Problem-Solving Teams Before and After Business Process Engineering

  • If the team is expected to implement new ideas, include members from different levels of the organization.

  • Monitor the team to ensure that the free exchange of ideas and creativity is not stifled if managers and employees are on the same team.

  • Select members for their expertise and diverse perspectives but also for their ability to compromise and solve problems collaboratively.

  • Allow the team enough time to complete its task.

  • Coordinate with other managers to free up time for the members.


Motivation l.jpg
Motivation Before and After Business Process Engineering

That which energizes, directs, and sustains human behavior. In HRM, a person’s desire to do the best possible job or to exert the maximum effort to perform assigned tasks.


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The Job Characteristics Theory of Work Motivation Before and After Business Process Engineering

Core Job

Characteristics

Critical

Psychological States

Personal and

Work Outcomes

Skill Varieties

Task Identity

Task Significance

Experienced Meaning-

fullness of the Work

High Internal

Work Motivation

High-Quality

Work Performance

Autonomy

Experienced Respon-

sibility for Work

Outcomes

High Satisfaction

With the Work

Knowledge of Results

from Work Activities

Feedback

Low Turnover

and Absenteeism

Strength of Relationships

is Determined by Intensity

of Employee Growth Need


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The Techniques of Job Analysis Before and After Business Process Engineering

Employee

Group

Focused On

Data-

Collection

Method

Analysis

Results

Technique

Description

1. Task

Inventory

Analysis

Any —large

number of

workers

needed

Question-

naire

Rating of

tasks

Tasks are rated by job

incumbent,* supervisor, or job analyst. Ratings may be characteristics such as importance of task and time spent doing it.

2. Critical

Incident

Technique

Any

Interview

Behavioral

descrip-

tion

Behavioral incidents

representing poor through excellent performance

are generated for each

dimension of the job.

* The term job incumbent refers to the person currently filling a particular job.


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The Techniques of Job Analysis (cont.) Before and After Business Process Engineering

Data-

Collection

Method

Employee

Group

Focused On

Analysis

Results

Technique

Description

3. Position

Analysis

Question-

naire (PAQ)

Any

Question-

naire

Rating of

194 job

elements

Elements are rated on six

scales (for example, extent

of use, importance to

job). Ratings are analyzed

by computer.

4. Functional

Job

Analysis

(FAQ)

Any

Group

interview/

Question-

naire

Rating of

how job

incumbent

relates to

people,

data, and

things

Originally designed to

improve counseling and

placement of people

registered at local state

employment offices. Task

statements are generated

and then presented to job

incumbents to rate on such

dimensions as frequency

and importance.


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The Techniques of Job Analysis (cont.) Before and After Business Process Engineering

Data-

Collection

Method

Employee

Group

Focused On

Analysis

Results

Description

Technique

5. Methods

Analysis

(Motion

Study)

Any

Question-

naire

Rating of

194 job

elements

Elements are rated on six

scales (for example, extent

of use, importance to

job). Ratings are analyzed

by computer.

6. Guide-

lines

Oriented

Job

Analysis

Any

Interview

Skills and

knowledge

required

Job incumbents identify

duties as well as know-

ledge, skills, physical

abilities, and other

characteristics needed

to perform the job.


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The Techniques of Job Analysis (cont.) Before and After Business Process Engineering

Data-

Collection

Method

Employee

Group

Focused On

Analysis

Results

Description

Technique

7. Manage-

ment

Position

Description

Question-

naire

(MPDQ)

Managerial

Question-

naire

Checklist

of 197

items

Managers check items

descriptive of their

responsibilities.

8. Hay Plan

Managerial

organization

Interview

Impact of

job on

organiza-

tion

Managers are interviewed

regarding such issues as

their responsibilities and

accountabilities. Responses

are analyzed according to

four dimensions: objectives,

dimensions, nature and

scope, accountability.


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Task Inventory Analysis Before and After Business Process Engineering

  • This technique is used to determine the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform a job successfully.

  • The analysis involves three steps:

    • Interview

    • Survey

    • Generation of a task by KSA matrix


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Critical Incident Technique Before and After Business Process Engineering

  • The critical incident technique (CIT) is used to develop behavioral descriptions of a job. In CIT, supervisors and workers generate behavioral incidents of job performance.

  • The technique involves the following four steps:

    • Generate dimensions

    • Generate incidents

    • Retranslate

    • Assign effectiveness values


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Guidelines for Conducting a Job Analysis Before and After Business Process Engineering

  • Determine the desired applications of the job analysis.

  • Select the jobs to be analyzed.

  • Gather the job information.

  • Verify the accuracy of the job information.

  • Document the job analysis by writing a job description.


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Job Description Before and After Business Process Engineering

A written document that identifies, describes, and defines a job in terms of its duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and specifications.


Selected human resource information systems applications l.jpg

Applicant tracking Before and After Business Process Engineering

Basic employee information

Benefits administration

Bonus and incentive management

Career development/ planning

Compensation budgeting

EEO/AA compliance

Employment history

Health and safety

Health insurance utilization

HR planning and forecasting

Job descriptions/analysis

Selected Human Resource Information Systems Applications

  • Job evaluation

  • Job posting

  • Labor relations planning

  • Payroll

  • Pension and retirement

  • Performance management

  • Short- and long-term disabilities

  • Skills inventory

  • Succession planning

  • Time and attendance

  • Turnover analysis