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Bajaj Auto Ltd., Pune, India. National Workshop on Urban Air Quality ... A system of decentralized test and repair centres in the private sector is not ...

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Environment Friendly Vehicles


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    1. Environment Friendly Vehicles – the Indian Experience N. V. Iyer Adviser (Technical) Bajaj Auto Ltd., Pune, India National Workshop on Urban Air Quality Management and Integrated Traffic Management for Karachi September 13 - 14, 2006 Karachi

    2. Road to Reduced Pollution from Transport Vehicles Reduced Pollution From Transport Improved Quality of Conventional Fuels Alternative Fuels New Vehicle Emission Standards In-Use Vehicle Emission Standards ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY VEHICLES N.V.Iyer

    3. Indian Experience • Programs at the National Level • Mass emission standards for new vehicles • Technology developments • Emission reduction achieved • Control of PM emissions from two-stroke vehicles • Promotion of alternative fuel vehicles • Emission standards for in-use vehicles • Programs at local levels – Delhi • Key initiatives taken in Delhi • Impact of Delhi initiatives on air quality • Recommendations of Lahore workshop • Conclusions • Recommendations N.V.Iyer

    4. Phased Implementation of Mass Emission Standards – 4-Wheelers * DELHI, MUMBAI, KOLKATA, CHENNAI ** BANGALORE, HYDERABAD, AHMEDABAD, PUNE, SURAT,KANPUR, AGRA # per cent by mass N.V.Iyer

    5. Phased Implementation of Mass Emission Standards – 2 & 3-Wheelers * Preferably by year 2008 N.V.Iyer

    6. Current & Future Vehicular Emission Standards in India N.V.Iyer

    7. Technologies Used to Meet New Vehicle Emission Standards – 4-Wheelers N.V.Iyer

    8. Technologies to Meet New Vehicle Emission Standards – 2&3-Wheelers Mass emission standards for two and three-wheelers, being unique to India and representing higher levels of stringency, proved to be “technology forcing” leading to the adoption innovative new techonolgies

    9. Reduction in Emissions with Introduction of Progressively Stringent Emission Standards – Cars & CVs N.V.Iyer

    10. Reduction in Emissions with Introduction of Progressively Stringent Emission Standards – 2 & 3-Wheelers N.V.Iyer

    11. Control of PM Emissions of 2-Stroke Engines Source: JAMA Proper Quantity of Oil : Achieved by dispensing oil pre-mixed with petrol Proper Quality of Oil: Mandating minimum quality level (JASO FC) of oil Use of Oxidation Catalytic Converter: Required for meeting gaseous emission standards N.V.Iyer

    12. Changes in Technology Choice Resulting from Consumer Preferences & Emission Standards The proportions of 2-stroke and 4-stroke have been calculated based on a study of the sales figures of various companies obtained from Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) and from the knowledge of the models produced by manufacturers N.V.Iyer

    13. Comparative Emission Performance of Typical Alternative Fuel Vehicles – Four-wheeled vehicles N.V.Iyer

    14. Comparative Emission Performance of Typical Alternate Fuel Vehicles – 2&3-Wheelers (based on data from Bajaj Auto) NMHC: Non-Methane Hydrocarbons RHC: Reactive Hydrocarbons

    15. Emissions from In-Use Vehicles – Control Options • Sound Inspection & Maintenance Programme • Establish in-use emission standards • The current ‘PUC’ system is expected to fulfill this requirement; Present system needs improvements to be more effective • Introduction of pre-mixed 2-Stroke (2-T) oil • Phasing out old vehicles • Replacing these with new ones meeting latest emission standards or • Replacing by those running on alternate fuels • Upgradation of old vehicles • Retrofitment of catalytic converters - will be effective only on post-1996 vehicles; N.V.Iyer

    16. Indian In-Use Vehcle Emission Standards Petrol/CNG/LPG Driven vehicles Diesel vehicles N.V.Iyer

    17. Inadequacy of the Present PUC System in India • No government supervision of the large number of privately owned centers • No quality assurance to verify correctness of certificates; Test equipment not calibrated periodically • Certificate issuing system not foolproof • Fraudulent practices followed by many centres, issue of certificates even without testing • Test centres allowed to carry out repairs; Creates vested interests N.V.Iyer

    18. Features of the Proposed I&C Centres in Delhi • Well-equipped centralized “test-only” centres • Completely automated to prevent discretion / manipulation. • Centres to be managed by private agencies subject to independent third party audits. • Government role limited to regulation and enforcement through random checking. • Only commercial vehicles to be tested in the first phase, such as auto-rickshaws, taxis, light and heavy-duty buses, light and heavy-duty goods carriages Source: Government of NCT of Delhi, Meeting of the ‘Asian Cities Network for Controlling Vehicle Emissions’, November 8-9, 2004

    19. Key Initiatives Taken in Delhi

    20. SOURCE: CPCB N.V.Iyer

    21. Annual Average RSPM Concentration Source: Sameer Akbar, ‘Ten Years of Urban Air Quality Management in India, Findings of a Recent Study Across Five Cities’, Workshop on Urban Air Quality Management in India: Progress and Future Challenges, New Delhi, October 18-19, 2004

    22. Changes in RSPM Levels (ug/m3)and their Economic Impact Source: Sameer Akbar, ‘Ten Years of Urban Air Quality Management in India, Findings of a Recent Study Across Five Cities’, Workshop on Urban Air Quality Management in India: Progress and Future Challenges, New Delhi, October 18-19, 2004

    23. Recommendations Made in the Workshop at Lahore in December 2004 (1/3) New Vehicle Emission Standards and Corresponding Fuel Quality for Metro Cities** • **Lahore, Karachi,Rawalpindi/ • Islamabad, Peshawar, Quetta • *** Timings of Euro III and IV tentative and in need of further review and discussion New Vehicle Emission Standards and Corresponding Fuel Quality for Whole Country ** Timings are tentative and need to be reviewed to determine whether these can be speeded up. N.V.Iyer

    24. Recommendations Made in the Workshop at Lahore in December 2004(2/3) In-use Vehicle Emission Standards * Further revisions will be required after 2007 based on the introduction of tighter emission standards for new vehicles

    25. Recommendations Made in the Workshop at Lahore in December 2004(3/3) Fuel Substitution, Purpose: To target particulate emissions from vehicles • The program will target high emitters of PM which are public transport on diesel and two stroke 3 wheelers • Strategy for 3 wheelers: Phase out plan • Complete phase out in 6 months to 2 years • Replacement as the preferred option, conversion of 2 stroke is not desirable • Cap age, In the phase out, target the older vehicles then, the newer ones • Simultaneous to the phase out, take the decision that all newregistration will be 4 stroke CNG 3 wheelers • Strategy for Buses • Cap age • First phase, older buses then, newer buses • Order of preference: • First priority: replace with new dedicated CNG buses • Second priority: re-powering (replace old engine with new engine) • Simple retrofit of old diesel engines in NOT recommended N.V.Iyer

    26. Conclusions • Indian experience shows that making the vehicles more environment friendly is an important part of the many measures that need to be taken to improve urban air quality. This requires • The introduction of progressively stringent emission standards for new vehicles and assuring availability of fuel of required quality to encourage the adoption of low emission technologies. • Adopting a system of centralized test-only centres in the private sector under government supervision to ensure compliance to in-use standards. A system of decentralized test and repair centres in the private sector is not found to be effective. • Substitution of CNG in diesel vehicles which is effective in reducing PM and NOx emissions. There could be an increase in NOx emissions when CNG is used to substitute petrol N.V.Iyer

    27. Recommendations • Expedite the adoption of mass emission standards for new vehicles along with the supply of fuel of required quality as per the recommendation of the Lahore Workshop • Expedite the adoption of in-use emission standards and ensure their compliance by setting up centralized test-only centres in the private sector. Combining the emission inspection with safety inspection improves the commercial viability of the independent centre • Selectively introduce CNG in areas where the gas is readily available. Good candidates are public transport vehicles such as buses, taxis and auto-rickshaws N.V.Iyer

    28. Thank you ! <narayan_iyer2000@yahoo.com>