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Four States & Four Critical Errors That Cause

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breaking the cycle of risky behavior

Breaking the Cycle of Risky Behavior

Gary A. Higbee EMBA CSP

Electrolab training Systems &

Higbee & Associates, Inc.

Office 515-270-6623

Cell 586-604-3765

g.higbee@mchsi.com

filling your personal safety tool box
Filling Your Personal Safety Tool Box
  • Topics
    • Introduction to Safety Awareness issues
    • “Why People do What They do”
    • Four States & Four Critical Errors That Cause “All” Accidents
unsafe conditions
Unsafe Conditions
  • Unknown
  • Failed to correct
unsafe acts
Unsafe Acts
  • Unknown
  • Unable
  • Positive reinforcement of negative acts
  • Unmotivated
combine two basic approaches
Combine Two Basic Approaches:
  • Compliance
    • OSHA – MSHA – NFPA - Laws
    • Rules - Procedures - PPE - etc.
    • Voluntary Standards - AISC
  • Behavior Modification (US Culture)
    • External
      • Culture
      • Habit
      • Observation
    • Internal
      • Attitude
      • Habit

Significant Resistance

relationship hazard behavior and risk
Relationship:Hazard, Behavior and Risk
  • Concept - Hazards seldom change but the way we interface with the hazard (our behavior) varies and our risk of injury increases or decreases depending on the behavior we exhibit.
  • To a great degree we control our own “Risk Triangle”
slide7

3,000

NEAR MISSES OR FIRST AID

1

FATAL

30 MAJORS

(Disabling

Accidents)

300

RECORDABLE ACCIDENTS

(Off Work, limited work and no

lost time)

30,000 HAZARDS

Unsafe acts-Unsafe conditions

slide8

Standard

RiskPyramid

Fatal

Major Injuries

Minor Injuries

Cuts, Bruises and Scrapes

Close Calls & Near Misses

slide9

Standard

RiskPyramid

Walking on Bike Path

slide10

Standard

RiskPyramid

Running on Bike Path

slide11

Standard

RiskPyramid

Walking Blindfolded on Bike Path

safety skill development
Safety Skill Development

I’m Safe Enough

I’m Not Safe Enough

Time in Years

injury decline
Injury Decline

I’m Not Safe Enough

I’m Safe Enough

Time in Years

natural decline in injuries
Natural Decline in Injuries

I’m Not Safe Enough

Injuries

I’m Safe Enough

0

10

20

30

Age in Years

natural increase in safety skills
Natural Increase in Safety Skills

I’m Safe Enough

I’m Not Safe Enough

Safety

Skills

0

10

20

30

Age in Years

hazardous energy step changes
Hazardous Energy Step Changes

Safety Skill Gaps

Cars, Motorcycles, Snowmobiles, Power Boats, Automated Equipment, etc

Hazardous

Energy

Safety

Skills

Skateboards, Bikes, Climbing Trees, Sports

Crawling, Walking, Running

0

10

20

30

40

Age in Years

hazardous energy and injuries
Hazardous Energy and Injuries

Injuries

Hazardous

Energy

1

10

20

30

Age in Years

slide18

Hazardous Energy

Person

Unexpected

sources of unexpected
Sources of Unexpected……

Events - something unexpected happens without you or someone else involved (e.g. wire rope breaks; traffic lights start working incorrectly; coupling fails; hose bursts; etc.)

sources of unexpected23
Sources of Unexpected……

Self - Own actions cause or contribute to incident/injury.

sources of unexpected25

Self - Own actions cause or contribute to incident/injury.

Other People - someone else's behaviour causes or contributes to incident/injury.

Events - something unexpected happens without you or someone else involved (e.g. wire rope breaks; traffic lights start working incorrectly; coupling fails; hose bursts; etc.)

Sources of Unexpected……
there are 3 types of at risk behavior
There Are 3 Types of At-risk Behavior
  • Conscious or intentional behavior
  • Habitual behavior
  • Unintentional behavior

Even if people are deliberately willing to increase the risk of a situation, hardly any of them are deliberately trying to get hurt. Something unexpected or unplanned always has to enter the equation.

the four critical errors
The Four Critical Errors
  • Eyes Not on Task(s)
  • Mind Not on Task(s)
  • Being in The Line-of-fire
  • Poor Balance/Traction/Grip © CERT

Nail – Exit – Car Door - Ice

the four states
The Four States
  • Rushing
  • Frustration
  • Fatigue
  • Complacency
      • Cause or Contribute to the Four Critical Errors That Cause “All” Accidents © CERT
slide38

States

(Cause)

Errors

More risk

Less risk

(To become)

(Which cause)

  • Rushing
  • Frustration
  • Fatigue
  • Complacency

Major

Major

  • Eyes Not on Task
  • Mind not on task
  • Line of fire
  • Balance, Traction, Grip

Minor

Minor

Close Calls

Close Calls

Hazards with a critical error

Hazards

Risk Patterns

To Become

critical error reduction techniques cert
Critical Error Reduction Techniques © CERT
  • Self Trigger on the State
    • to prevent or avoid making the error
  • Analyze Close Calls and small injuries
    • to prevent big ones – Learn from our OOPS!
  • Observers Others for the State to Error Patterns
    • To avoid the risk
    • To prevent complacency
    • To recognize and intervene with co-workers
  • Work on our Habits
    • Personal safety skills

Basic Safety Skills Are Learnable & Transferable