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Life Cycle Assessment and Ecodesign ARW: Life Cycle Analysis for Assessing Energy and Environmental Implications of Information Technology Budapest, Hungary September 1-3, 2003 Paulo Ferrão Analysis of the evolution of the historical pattern of environmental strategies

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life cycle assessment and ecodesign

Life Cycle Assessment and Ecodesign

ARW: Life Cycle Analysis for Assessing Energy and Environmental Implications of Information Technology

Budapest, Hungary

September 1-3, 2003

Paulo Ferrão

outline
Analysis of the evolution of the historical pattern of environmental strategies

Life cycle framework- ex: electrical and electronic equipment

Industrial Ecology Framework

Ecodesign/DFE: a new software tool, towards the new framework

Conclusions and …software demonstration

Outline
slide3

Business-as-usual

Compliance with regulation

Pollution prevention

Process oriented

EIA, Energy audits, Envir. audits

Extended product responsability

Eco-efficiency

Design for Environment

Life Cycle Assessment

Product oriented

LCA

Historical pattern of Environmental Strategies

Time and Space

Historical pattern of Environmental strategies

slide4

Resources

Resources

Life cycle thinking

MSW

EEE

Car

Components Manufacturing

Assembly

Use

Waste

Environment

directive 2002 96 ec on waste electrical and electronic equipment weee
Puts the EPR policy on place for Electrical and Electronic Equipment: The establishment, by this Directive, of producer responsibility is one of the means of encouraging the design and production of electrical and electronic equipment which take into full account and facilitate their repair,possible upgrading, reuse, disassembly and recycling.

Motivation: The amount of WEEE generated in the Community is growing rapidly. The content of hazardous components in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is a major concern during the waste management phase and recycling of WEEE is not undertaken to a sufficient extent.

DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)
directive 2002 96 ec categories of electrical and electronic equipment covered
Large household appliances

Small household appliances

IT and telecommunications equipment

Consumer equipment

Lighting equipment

Electrical and electronic tools (with the exception of large-scale stationary industrial tools)

Toys, leisure and sports equipment

Medical devices (with the exception of all implanted and infected products)

Monitoring and control instruments

Automatic dispensers

DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC Categories of electrical and electronic equipment covered

ANNEX IA

directive 2002 96 ec on waste electrical and electronic equipment weee7
For WEEE from private households, Member States shall ensure that by the 13 August 2005:

systems are set up allowing final holders and distributors to return such waste at least free of charge.

when supplying a new product, distributors shall be responsible for ensuring that such waste can be returned to the distributor at least free of charge on a one-to-one basis as long as the equipment is of equivalent type and has fulfilled the same functions as the supplied equipment.

without prejudice to the provisions of (a) and (b), producers are allowed to set up and operate individual and/or collective take-back systems for WEEE from private households provided that these are in line with the objectives of this Directive;

DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)
directive 2002 96 ec on waste electrical and electronic equipment weee8
Member States shall ensure that by 31 December 2006 at the latest a rate of separate collection of at least four kilograms on average per inhabitant per year of WEEE from private households is achieved.

Regarding WEEE sent for treatment, Member States shall ensure that, by 31 December 2006, producers meet the following targets:

for WEEE falling under categories 1 and 10 of Annex IA, the rate of recovery shall be increased to a minimum of 80 % by an average weight per appliance, and component, material and substance reuse and recycling shall be increased to a minimum of 75 % by an average weight per appliance;

DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)
directive 2002 96 ec financing in respect of weee from private households
Member States shall ensure that, by 13 August 2005,producers provide at least for the financing of the collection, treatment, recovery and environmentally sound disposal of WEEE from private households deposited at collection facilities, set up under Article 5(2).

For products put on the market later than 13 August 2005, each producer shall be responsible for financing the operations referred to in paragraph 1 relating to the waste from his own products. The producer can choose to fulfil this obligation either individually or by joining a collective scheme.

DIRECTIVE 2002/96/EC Financing in respect of WEEE from private households
end of life processing

Metals

Glass

Plastics

Rubber

Other

End-of-life processing

Component suppliers

Manufacturer

Component suppliers

Raw material producers

Raw material producers

Dismantler

Re-use

Recycling

Components

WEEE

Steel

Siderurgy

SR

Shredder

Non-ferr met..

Foundry

Energy recovery

Landfill

slide15

Recycling

reduced iron

metals

oxygen

Recycling

& copper

ASR (55%)

Smelting

melt

Road

Grinding

Density sep.

cyclone

granulate

construction

MSW flying

Gaseous

Boiler

ash (45%)

fuel

energy

Exhaust gas

treatment

Reshment

slide18

Others

Product Life Cycle Space

MSW

EEE

Car

Components Manufacturing

Assembly

Use

Resources

Waste

Physical nature of the economy

Environment

slide19

Time and Space

Historical pattern of Environmental strategies

Business-as-usual

Compliance with regulation

Pollution prevention

Process oriented

EIA, Energy audits, Envir. audits

Extended product responsability

Eco-efficiency

Design for Environment

Life Cycle Assessment

Product oriented

LCA

IndustrialEcology

Creating loop closing industrial ecosystems

Promoting waste exchanges

Cascading energy utilization

Systems Oriented

Historical pattern of Environmental Strategies

slide21

Others

MSW

EEE

Car

Components Manufacturing

Assembly

Use

Resources

Landfill

Incineration

Recycling

I.E. Tech.

Shredder

EnvironmentalSphere

Product Life Cycle Space

slide22

MSW

Bulk- MFA

MFA

LCA

SFA

Resources

Landfill

Incineration

I.E. Tech.

Shredder

EnvironmentalSphere

Others

Product Life Cycle Space

EEE

Car

Components Manufacturing

Assembly

Use

Recycling

materials flow analysis

TMR

DMI

Stocks

Economy

Materials Flow Analysis

Air

Water

Air

Water

Foreign hidden flows

Imports

Exports

Domestic

extraction

Domestic

output

Environmentalburdens

Domestic hidden flows

ENVIRONMENT

* Matthews et al. (2000)

evolution of dmi vs gdp

Adapted from Bringezu and Schütz, 2000, Total Material Requirement of the European Union, European Environment Agency, Technical report No 55.

Evolution of DMI vs. GDP

(1988-1997)

portuguese dmi domestic imported
Portuguese DMI: Domestic/Imported
  • Almost all non-renewable domestic extraction is due to Rock, Clay and Clay extraction for construction
  • Imports: mainly fossil fuels
portuguese dmi dynamics
Portuguese DMI dynamics

Metabolism time scale, from infraestructure to use

environmental indicators framework
Enhance the capability of the decision making process

Integrating physical and economical indicators, environmental impacts and policies with causality-effect relations

Environmental indicators framework

Requires appropriate Indicators Framework

slide29

Risk assessment costs and benefits of action/in action

Effectiveness of responses

Effectiveness of responses

Effectiveness of responses

Effectiveness of responses

Eco-efficiency indicators and emissions factors

Dose response indicatorsand relationships

Pathways and dispersion models

Indicators framework: DPSIR

Responses

Drivers

Impact

Pressures

State

slide30

Drivers

are the underlying factors that influence a variety of relevant variables

very static

are useful to calculate pressures indicators, to help decision-makers to plan action and to serve as basis for scenario development

Pressures

describe the variables that directly cause environmental burdens

should be responsive

due to their celerity, demonstrate the effectiveness of policy actions

State

show the current condition of the environment

have a great inertia

Used to do a first assessment of the situation, and to answer the question where do we stand?

Impact

describe the ultimate effects on the environment or changes of state

react even slower than state indicators

formalize the cause-effect relationships, are more scientific “decision models” rather then statistical indicators

Response

demonstrate the efforts of society, namely decision-makers to solve the problems

are very fast

monitor the measures taken to reduce the environmental problems, in conjunction with others indicators show the effectiveness of the measures

DPSIR framework

(Jesinghaus, 1999)

slide32

The “New Framework” requires the analysis of

dismantling vs shredding

Ferrous metals

Reuse parts

ELV

Dismantler

hulk

Shredder

Heavy SR

Hazardous

materials

Materials for

recovery/recycling

Light SR

Non ferrous metals separator

Non ferrous metals

SR

Landfill

Residues

Materials for

recovery/recycling

SR separator

slide33

DfE Software Tool

Life cycle approach

The method is implemented in the EoL module of a software toolaimed at support eco efficient product design. This tool considers the product’s life cycle

  • Objectives:
    • Evaluate environmental impact through all the life cycle;
    • Minimize end of life costs achieving a pre specified recycling rate;
slide34

DfE Software Tool

Structure

EoL module

slide35

Optimization of disassembly sequence

Existing methods

  • Exhaustive (Lambert, 2002):
    • Considers the product’s connection diagram. Precedence relations are established between parts;
  • Identifies and represents all the feasible disassemblysequences (ex: transition matrix, AND/OR graphic, Petri Net). These consist in feasible groups of parts “linked” by disassembly actions;
slide36

Optimization of disassembly sequence

Existing methods

  • Exhaustive (Lambert, 2002):
    • Economic information is considered by attributing coststodisassembly actions and revenues to parts (reuse or recycling)
    • Optimum disassembly sequence is calculated using optimization methodologies such as linear programming and Petri Net optimization
    • May require significant amounts of computational time and dismantling information (for assessing parallel disassembly sequences) and expert user intervention
slide37

Optimization of disassembly sequence

Existing methods

  • Simplified (Ramirez, 1996):
    • Considers the product’s bill of materials (parts and sub assemblies). Precedence relations are established for parts and sub assemblies
  • Revenues are attributed to parts and subassemblies (reuse, recycling, recovery or landfill). Costs are attributed to removal timesfor parts and sub assembliesAssessment of each disassembly sequence is done by evaluating the final state (set of separated parts and sub assemblies)
slide38

Optimization of disassembly sequence

Existing methods

  • Simplified (Ramirez, 1996):
    • Optimum sequence is found by enumerating and comparing all the possible sets. For larger sets of parts a genetic algorithm based procedure is used
    • The results may be highly dependent on the way the user supplies information on parts, subassemblies and precedence relations, namely for complex assemblies
slide39

Optimization of disassembly sequence

Proposed methodology

  • Main topics
    • Considers the product’s connection diagram.
    • Disassembly operations eliminate connections between parts. One operation may eliminate more than one connection
    • Precedence relations are defined for operations
    • The disassembly sequence is evaluated considering its final state (set of performed and non-performed operations).
    • In a feasible sequence, all the performed operations comply with precedence relations
slide40

Optimization of disassembly sequence

Proposed methodology

  • Information for assessing economic value and recycling rate:
    • Operation: time (costs are proportional), parts disconnected and precedence relations
    • Parts: mass, material composition and reuse value.Revenuefrompart(and groups of parts)is highest EoL value(reuse, recycling, shredding and landfill)
    • Subassembly: higher level assembly and reuse value
    • EoL scenarios: recycling value, shredding value (dependent on material composition), shredding efficiencies, SR separation efficiencies and landfill cost
slide41

DfE Software Tool

DfR module

  • The user supplies information on:
    • product structure (parts and assemblies), part materialcomposition and mass. Specific parts may be marked for removal
    • EoL operators costs (buildings, equipment, labor), recycled material revenues and separation efficiencies
slide42

Connections

Precedence relations

DfE Software Tool

DfR module

The information on operations, connections and precedence relations is introduced by completely disassembling the product

slide43

DfE Software Tool

DfR module

The Software identifies an optimum DFR strategy, (maximum dismantling profit), given a target recycling rate and the available recycling infraestructure

slide45

Case Study: automobile seat

Disassembly Operations

slide46

Case Study: automobile seat

Optimum disassembly sequence

Disassembly sequence for a minimum cost achieving a recycling rate of 70%

slide47

Future policy directions ?

Environmental strategy

IndustrialEcology

Productoriented

Economy

Monetary

+ Physical

Indicator framework

DPSIR

DPSIR

EIA,LCA,...

+ MFA, SFA,...

Environmental toolbox

End-of-life Environmental business

Product Green dot societies

+ Material flows symbiosis

slide48

Final remarks

DFE is an increasingly relevant concept, as a consequence of a broader extended product responsibility policies at an EU level

The DFR concept is not limited to disassembly operations, as shredding and post shredding recycling technologies are increasingly relevant

A new and innovative DFE software tool, including this broad approach was developed and used in the auto industry context

Future work will be concentrated on developing a database of shredding and post-shredding recycling technologies.

slide49

http://in3.dem.ist.utl.pt/mscdesign/

A development integrated in a new program…

M.Sc. in ENGINEERING DESIGN

….at IST, LISBON