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Life Cycle Assessment IV. INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND ISO 14000. Contents. Global environmental problems Sustainable development Extended Produces Responsibility (EPR) Environmental management (EM) Environmental standardisation International standards

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life cycle assessment iv

Life Cycle Assessment IV


  • Global environmental problems
  • Sustainable development
  • Extended Produces Responsibility (EPR)
  • Environmental management (EM)
  • Environmental standardisation
  • International standards
  • ISO 14000 series
  • Environmental Performance Evaluation (EPE)
  • Environmental Labelling (EL)
  • Standardisation of LCA
  • Design for Environment (DfE)
  • Environmental Management Systems (EMS)
environmental problems
Environmental Problems

Local, Regional


global environmental problems
Global Environmental Problems
  • Green house effect/climate change
  • Ozone layer depletion
  • Acidification
  • Contamination of drinking water
  • Pollution of oceans and coastal waters
  • Deforestation
  • Desertification
  • Loss of species (flora & fauna)
  • Managing hazardous wastes

(U.N. identified “top ten” environmental issues in 1989)

past environmental incidences
  • Minamata Disease

- Japan (1968)

  • Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident

- USA (1979)

  • Bhopal chemical Accident

- India (1984)

  • Chernobyl nuclear disaster

- Ukraine (1986)

  • Exxon Valdez tanker accident

- USA (1989)

minamata bay japan
Minamata Bay, Japan
  • 1953- outbreak of polio-like disease among coastal fishing villages
  • 1953 startup of acetaldehyde production at a coastal factory using mercuric oxide as a catalyst
  • Stray cats went crazy after eating fish
  • 1968-mercury diagnosed as cause of 2000 disease victims
polluting with hg
Polluting with HG

Discharge in Minamata Bay

minamata disease infants
Minamata disease-infants
  • Mental retardation in infants
  • Abnormal reflexes, ataxia, involuntary movements
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Developmental delays—some didn’t walk until age 7
minamata disease in adults
Minamata disease in adults
  • Paresthesia-numbness “pins and needles”
  • Cerebellar ataxia, tremors, convulsions
  • Constriction of visual fields, loss of smell
  • Loss of hearing, dizziness, insomnia
  • Dysarthria -speech disorder. Speech is slow, weak, imprecise or uncoordinated.
  • Cognitive impairments, such as inattention, excitement, hallucinosis, loss of intelligence
three mile island12
Three Mile Island
  • Three Mile Island took place on March 28, 1979, in Pennsylvania when equipment malfunctions, design related problems and worker errors, led to a partial meltdown of the TMI-2 reactor core but only a very small amount of off-site radioactivity releases took place.
Chernobyl took place on April 26, 1986, in the former Soviet Union. It was the result of a flawed reactor design trained and inadequate personnel.
  • The technicians allowed the power in the fourth reactor to fall to low levels as part of a controlled experiment which went wrong. As a result, the reactor overheated and caused a meltdown of the core.
  • The steam explosion and fire released about five percent of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere and downwind into the surrounding area. The clouds of deadly radioactive material stayed in the atmosphere for over 10 days.
  • The people of Chernobyl were exposed to radioactivity 100 times greater than the Hiroshima bomb, killing thirty people immediately.
  • The clouds of radioactive material spread globally and 70% of the radiation is estimated to have fallen on Belarus. Ten years later babies are still being born with no arms, no eyes, or only stumps for limbs.
  • The accident has victimized over 15 million people in some way and cost over 60 billion dollars in health care. More than 600,000 people involved with the cleanup are now dead or sick.
An estimated 20 million Soviets were exposed to radioactivity, resulting in as many as 5,000 deaths. The accident may yet cause up to 300,000 deaths, ultimately claiming more victims than did WWII.
  • In the former Soviet republics of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia there was twice the normal rate of birth defects among those living in the vicinity of the plant. Thyroid glands of more than 150,000 people were "seriously affected" by doses of radioactive iodine. 800,000 children are at risk of contracting leukemia. Even the U.S. felt the effects as demonstrated by a small excess mortality in May 1986.
environmental effects
Environmental Effects
  • The radioactive fallout was detected all over the world, from Finland to South Africa. Two million acres of land in Belarus and Ukraine, including 20% of Belarus’ farmland, could not be exploited and one-fifth (1/5) of the republic of Belarus' more than 10 million people have to be moved from areas contaminated by radiation, including 27 cities and more than 2,600 villages.
  • $26 billion was allotted for the resettlement of the 200,000 people still living in the irradiated areas and it may end up costing $400 billion.
  • It will take up to 200 years before the effects of Chernobyl are no longer felt in the affected areas.

Bhopal Disaster

  • On December 3, 1984, a chemical accident occurred at Bhopal, India.
  • Resulted in the deaths of over 2,000 people and injuries to tens of thousands.
  • Disaster had a profound effect on Canada’s emergency planning.
  • After this event, the federal Department of Environment initiated a Bhopal Aftermath Review Project.

Bhopal Aftermath Review Project

  • Department of the Environment led an industry and government steering committee to examine the potential for Bhopal-type accidents in Canada.
  • Bhopal Aftermath Review: An Assessment of the Canadian Situation was released in March 1986 and had 21 recommendations.
  • Review concluded that “The possibility of a major industrial accident does exist in Canada”
exxon valdez
Exxon Valdez
  • On the 24th of March 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground in the Prince William Sound off Alaska, spilling more than 11 millions gallons of crude oil, affecting more than 1000 miles of shoreline.
  • A major oil spill can be very expensive
    • Exxon spent some 2 billion US dollars cleaning up the spill, and a further 1 billion to settle civil and criminal charges related to the case.
    • The ecological damage is impossible measured by money. For example, only 25% of the migratory salmon population returned to the area the following season, thousands of otters were poisoned, and tens of thousands of birds died.
sustainable development
  • “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”

-United Nations World Commission onEnvironment and Development (UNWCED)

  • “Sustainability means living on nature’s income rather than its capital”

-Murray Gell-Mann

1969 Nobel Prize in Physics

golden rule for restorative economy
“Golden Rule for restorative economy”

1. Leave the world better than you find it

2. Take no more than you need

3. Try not to harm the environment

4. Make amends (hüvitised) if you do

-Paul Hawken (The Ecology of Commerce)




Knowledge and






evolution of environmental management process

Stage 1

Controlling waste and releases

Making existing processes and products more efficient

Stage 2

Innovate and develop product or service that are far more eco efficient

Stage 3

Evolution of Environmental Management Process
why adopt pollution prevention strategies
  • Environmental problems

- population, industrialization, consumption

- wastes, pollutants, emissions

- dead rivers, air quality, waste dumps, acid rain, ozone layer

  • Environmental cost

- expensive treatment

- investment, maintenance, chemicals

- training of operator


Global Environmental Carrying Capacity

has its limit

Natural resources

agricultural productivity

self purification capacity

all have limits

Irrational resource consumption irresponsible environmental pollution from product life cycle :

Raw material acquisition, manufacturing,

use, disposal


Reason :

  • Industrial structure
  • Consumption pattern
  • Not environmentally friendly
  • Concern about our future :

Sustainable society may not be achievable

Environmental Loads occurring throughout a product life cycle

Main cause of today’s

environmental problem


The impact on the environment and business

Future society

Non material economy

Service oriented economy

Wealth w/o virgin resource consumption

Recycle and reuse

Resource consumption

environmental emissions

Threatened by


Environmental laws and regulations

Command and control

End-of pipe treatment

Burdens to most corporations

No improvement in global environmental problems


Extended Producer Responsibility(EPR)

The cost associated with the waste product’s

collection, treatment, disposal should be

borne by the manufacturer

Responsibility shifts from government

and local authorities to the manufacturers


Example of EPR policy

  • Packaging and packaging waste order
  • Germany 1992
  • Packaging covenant
  • the Netherlands, 1991
  • Voluntary agreement on the cost bearing
  • of the waste automobiles disposal
  • German automakers, 1998

Environmental Management(EM)

In response to

command and control

First in the Netherlands in early 1980s

Setting Environmental policy

Identifying significant environmental aspects

of a corporation


Consider suppliers and consumers

Prepare environmental and operational programs

Measure and monitor the environmental performance

Audit the environmental performance

Review the overall environmental management


Acceptable to the government because

EM considers entire life cycle of a product

It strives for pollution prevention rather than

end-of-pipe treatment

Government relax some command and

control regulations

what are standards
What are standards?
  • Standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. (egs. credit cards, phone cards etc.)
the need for international standardization
The need for international standardization
  • Existence of non-harmonized standards for similar technologies in different countries or regions can contribute to so-called “technical barriers to trade”.
  • The need to agree on world standards to help rationalize the international trading process.
  • The origin of the establishment of ISO.
what is iso
What is ISO ?
  • The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a non-governmental organization based in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • ISO members are the national standards bodies of 111 countries.
  • Founded in 1946, ISO’s objective is to develop manufacturing, trade and communication standards.
  • All standards developed by ISO are voluntary, however, countries often adopt ISO standards and make them mandatory.
purpose of an ems
Purpose Of An EMS
  • Identify regulatory requirements
  • Identify and control effects
  • Establish a policy, objectives and targets
  • Monitor performance
  • Manage risks and opportunities
iso 14000 an introduction

1. Is a series of environment management standards

2. Provide structure and tool for managing the environmental aspects/impacts of the organization’s activities

3. Include basic environmental management systems, auditing, labelling, performance evaluation, life cycling assessment and product standards

  • Descriptive rather than prescriptive
  • Preventive rather than corrective
  • Voluntary
  • Framework for self-regulatory
why the need for ems iso 14000 standards
Why the need for EMS ISO 14000 Standards
  • The purpose of the ISO international standards is to allow organizations to focus environmental efforts against an internationally accepted criteria.
  • A single standard will ensure that there are no conflicts between regional interpretations of good environmental practice.
  • The environmental management system can be adopted to include the organization’s products, services, activities, operations, facilities,transportation, etc.
history of development iso 14000 series
History of Development ISO 14000 series
  • Emerged primarily as a result of the Uruguay round of the GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)negotiations and the Rio Summit on the Environment held in 1992.
  • Generated a commitment to protection of the environment across the world.
  • Other environmental standard-
    • the British Standards Institution BS 7750.
    • Canadian Standards Association environmental management, auditing and eco-labeling.
    • European Union eco-management and audit regulations.

ISO 14000 series

Business Council for Sustainable Development (BCSD)

United Nations Committee for Sustainable


Requests the standardization of the

Environmental Management Fields to ISO

in April 1991


Strategic Advisory Group on Environment

(SAGE) Evaluates the Necessity in October 1991

Technical Committee(TC) 207 in June 1993

Standardization of the environmental

management systems : ISO 14000 series

iso tc 207
ISO/TC 207


  • SC1: Environmental Management
  • SC2: Environmental Auditing
  • SC3: Environmental Labelling
  • SC4: Environmental Performance Evaluation
  • SC5: Life Cycle Analysis
  • SC6: Terms and Definitions
  • WG1: Environmental Aspects in Product Standards


Improve the organization’s environmental

performance continuously


Reduced cost in pollution prevention activities

Compliance with regulatory requirements

Better organization’s image

Potential technical barriers to trade

environmental management

Environmental Auditing

Life Cycle Analysis

Environmental Labelling


Environmental Management System

Environmental Performance Evaluation

Environmental Management



Environmental Performance(EP)

Results of an organization’s management

of its environmental aspects

  • International management process
  • Selecting indicators
  • Collecting and analyzing data
  • Assessing information against EP criteria
  • Ongoing process of
  • Collection and assessment of data and
  • information to provide a current evaluation
  • of performance performance trends over time


Type I : Ecolabelling program

Type II : Self-declared environmental claims

Type III : Environmental declarations using

preset category of parameters

Marketing tool

through communication of verifiable,

accurate and not misleading information on

environmental aspects of products or services


Ecolabelling (Type I)

More than average environmentally friendly products EU market

Self declared environmental claims (Type II)

Average environmentally friendly products

North American market

Environmental declarations (Type III)

Tool for the implementation of GPN

GPN : Green Purchasing Network -potential solution to the environmental problems of the present and future society. Need LCA

life cycle assessment lca
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
  • LCA studies the environmental aspectsand the potential impacts
  • Throughout a product’s life (cradle-to-grave)Systems perspective vs. site view
  • General categories of environmental impacts:
    • Resource use
    • Human health
    • Ecosystem impacts
decision process
Decision Process

Generally, the information developed in a LCA should be used:

  • As part of a much more comprehensive decision process or
  • To understand the broad or general trade-offs

Impact Analysis ISO 14042

Goal Definition

Improvement Analysis ISO14043



Inventory ISO 14041

Elements of Life Cycle Assessment (ISO 14040 -General Principles and Framework )



The Life Cycle Assessment Framework

Direct applications

Goal & scope


  • Product development
  • Strategic Planning
  • Public policy making
  • Marketing
  • Other








ISO 14040 series : LCA

LCA : supporting tool for EMS and EL

LCA results :

  • identifykey issues(activities, processes and materials)of a product system
  • environmental issues
      • of a corporation(EMS)
      • of a product or service(EL)
      • of a new product design(DfE)
life cycle inventory
Life-Cycle Inventory

Raw Materials Acquisition



Manufacturing, Processing,

and Formulation


Water Effluents

Distribution and Transportation

Airborne Emissions

Solid Wastes


Other Environmental




Usable Products


Waste Management

System Boundary


Life-Cycle Template




Raw or











lca can be used to assist in
LCA can be used to assist in:
  • Pollution prevention initiatives
  • Resource conservation efforts
  • Internal bench marking and improvement efforts
  • Understanding global impact concerns
  • Triggering additional environmental assessments on local or regional levels


  • Internal industrial use in product and services development and improvement
  • Internal strategic planning and policy decision support in Government and private sectors
  • External use in marketing purposes, and
  • Governmental policy making in the areas of eco-labeling, green procurement and waste management opportunities


  • Facilitates decision making based on comparison of
  • eco-efficiency of different options (e.g. packaging of goods)
  • Shows potential for improving eco-efficiency
  • Avoids transfer of environmental burdens to other media
  • or regions
  • Basis for national eco-labeling
  • Useful tool for environmental management
  • Benchmarking within industry sector

Objective : Minimize Overall Impact - Avoiding Transfer in Pollution Medium

Minimize Energy Use

Minimize Solid Waste

Minimize Air Pollutant Effects

Minimize Water Pollutant Effects

Overall Energy consumed in:

  • Volume of solid waste
  • Toxicity of waste
  • Toxicity of waste
  • Effect of emitted air pollutants
  • Effect of emitted water pollutants
  • Resource extraction
  • Manufacture
  • Transportation distribution
  • Recycle
  • Ultimate disposal

Environmental Requirements should be developed to minimize :

  • The use of natural resources ( particularly non renewable)
          • Energy consumption
          • Waste consumption
          • Waste generation
          • Health and safety risks
          • Ecological degradation

Benefits of improvement based on life cycle perspectives

  • Reduction in operating costs
  • Production and process improvements
  • Reduced liability and risk
  • Increased opportunities for innovation
  • Increased opportunity for revenue generation, including new market openings and price premiums
  • Better supplier management and
  • Better relationship with customers, communities and regulators



Essential to the sustainable society

Ultimate target of the ISO 14000 series

Concept in relation to EPR (Environmental Performance Reviews)

Cost reduction for waste product’s



Design a product easy to disassemble, easy to

reuse and recycle

Design concept that reduces the number of

components, uses environmentally friendly

materials, develop common components,

minimize the quantity and toxicity of materials

for incineration/landfilling


Design a product that considers environmental

attributes of the product throughout its life cycle

Traditional aspects of a product

quality, function, cost, safety

: Basic requirements

Determining factor

: Environmental aspects



ISO 14001

Specifications on EMS

Environmental policy

Objectives, targets and programs





Identify key environmental issues

Corporation’s products or service

LCA or life cycle consideration

Controllable key environmental issues

Consider constraints

: personnel, financial, technological


ISO 14001 certificate

Mere proof of EMS in place

No guarantee of superb environmental


Conscious implementation generates profits

Faithful implementation of EMS based on

ISO 14001

Win-win strategy


ISO 14000 series

fatal trap for the developing countries

in the international trade arena


prepare action plans

how to implement the ISO 14000 series

benefits of implementing ems
Benefits of Implementing EMS
  • Enhanced Compliance of Legislation
  • Reduced cost of waste management
  • Savings in consumption of energy and materials
  • Improved corporate image among regulators, customers and the public
  • Framework for continuous improvement of environment performance