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(90% 0f Plasma is water ). 92% Water 8 % = Salts and organic molecules Salts help to maintain pH of blood Small molecules like Glucose and Amino acids nourish cells Urea = excreted. Plasma proteins : buffer blood; homeostasis Albumin : osmotic pressure of blood; transports bilirubin

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plasma contents
92% Water

8 % = Salts and organic molecules

Salts help to maintain pH of blood

Small molecules like Glucose and Amino acids nourish cells

Urea = excreted

Plasma proteins : buffer blood; homeostasis

Albumin: osmotic pressure of blood; transports bilirubin

Globulin: transport cholesterol; immune function

Fibrinogen : blood clotting

Plasma contents
body fluids related to blood
Body Fluids related to Blood
  • Blood = Formed elements and Plasma
  • Plasma = Liquid portion of blood
  • Serum = Plasma minus Fibrinogen
  • Tissue Fluid = Plasma minus most proteins
  • Lymph = Tissue fluid with Lymphatic vessels
major blood groups
Major Blood Groups
  • Discovered by Karl Landsteiner in 1901
  • Difference due to presence or absence of proteins called antigens and antibodies
  • Antigens = surface of RBC
  • Antibodies = Blood plasma

20 genetically identified blood types, but only ABO and RH are common and used


ABO Blood Type

Blood Plasma


Agglutination of RBCs

After addition of serum containing anti-A antibodies

Before addition of serum containing anti-A antibodies


Rh+ if antigen present on cell surface

Rh- if antigen absent on cell surface

Erythroblastis foetalis: Rh mishap in kids

rbc troubles
RBC Troubles
  • Hemolysis
  • Anemia
  • Hemophilia
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Leukemia
cardiovascular system
Includes circulatory and respiratory system (cardio = heart; vascular = lungs)


Heart : the ultimate laborer

Parts of the heart, characteristics, function

Circulation patterns

Blood pressure, cardiac cycle and cardiac rhythm

Heart diseases and treatments offered

Cardiovascular system
the heart ultimate biological pump
THE HEART: Ultimate Biological Pump
  • Located behind sternum and between lungs
  • Pumps blood throughout the entire body
  • Pericardium, fibrous sac that surrounds the heart (protects and lubricates)
  • Endocardium, inner chambers have a smooth lining (connective tissue)
working of the heart
Working of the heart
  • Average weight: 10 - 12 ounces
  • Average heart rate: 72 beats per minute
    • 100,000 beats per day
    • 2.7 billion beats over a lifetime
  • Heart pumps over 300 quarts of blood an hour
    • Pumping 300,000 tons of blood over a life time
  • There are 59,951 miles of blood vessels in your body!
characteristics of the cardio vascular system
Closed circuit

Elastic and not rigid

Heart fills passively, and at no point of time is it completely filled

High energy job

The rate of circulation is determined by factors outside the heart

Blood flow from heart : follow traffic rules; while blood to the heart is continuous

Characteristics of the cardio-vascular system
human heart
Human Heart
  • 4 chambers
    • right atrium
    • left atrium
    • right ventricle
    • left ventricle

Upper half of heart

Lower half of the heart

circulation of blood
Circulation of blood
  • Follows a closed circuit (goes around in a circle)
  • Two types of circulation:
  • Systemic circulation : where blood flows from the heart to the other parts of the body and back

Heart Body Heart

  • Pulmonary circulation : where blood flows from heart to lungs and back

Heart Lungs Heart

networks of circulation
Networks of circulation
  • Arteries :These carry the pure blood from heart to all parts of the body
  • Veins :These carry the impure blood from all parts of the body to the heart
    • Pure Blood= Blood rich in oxygen (AKA) Oxygenated blood
    • Impure Blood= Blood poor in oxygen, but rich in Carbon-di-oxide (AKA)Deoxygenated blood
  • Pulmonary artery :
    • It carries impure blood from the heart to the lungs
  • Pulmonary vein :
    • It carries pure blood from the lungs to the heart

That is why the weird pulmonary circulation is studied separately instead of combining with the normal systemic circulation of blood!

circulation one way flow of blood
Circulation: One way flow of blood

Deoxygenated or impure blood from all over the body

Superior and Inferior vena cavae (veins)

Drained into RIGHT ATRIUM of the heart

Tricuspid valve


Flows into the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart

Pulmonary artery

Lungs (becomes pure blood by getting oxygenated)

Pulmonary vein

Drained into the LEFT ATRIUM of the heart

Bicuspid (AKA) Mitral valve

Flows into the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart

Dorsal aorta (biggest artery)

Supplied to all parts of body

left ventricle
Left ventricle

Mitral valve


Bicuspid valve