What Is Personality?. The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique. What Makes Up Personality?. Psychological Core. The most basic and deepest attitudes, values, interests, motives, and self-worth of a person—the “real” person.
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The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique.
The most basic and deepest attitudes, values, interests, motives, and self-worth of a person—the “real” person.
Example:A person’s religious values
The way one typically adjusts or responds to the environment.
Example:Being happy-go-lucky, shy
How one acts in a particular social situation.
Example:Behavior as a student, parent, or friend
Behavior is determined by a number of unconscious, constantly changing factors that often conflict with one another. Emphasis is placed on understanding the person as a whole, rather than identifying isolated traits.
Behavior is determined by relatively stable traits that are fundamental units of personality. These traits predispose one to act in a certain way, regardless of the situation.
Behavior is determined largely by the situation or environment.
Behavior is determined by both the person and the situational factors, as well as by their interaction.
Current impact. Considerable influence; adopted by most contemporary sport psychologists.
Contribution. Emphasizes the consideration of both trait and situational variables and their interaction.
Traits Versus States
Measure both traits and states.
Trait is a typical style of behavior.
State is the situation’s effects on behavior—a “right now” feeling that can change from moment to moment.
General Versus Situation– (Sport–) Specific Measures
Situation-specific trait tests predict behavior more accurately than do general trait measures.
It is often more effective to compare personality test scores relative to an individual’s own previous test results than with group norms.
Some relationship exists between personality traits and states and sport performance, but it is far from perfect or precise.
No single definitive personality profile has been found that consistently distinguishes athletes from nonathletes.
Few personality differences are evident between male and female athletes.
Type-A behavior patterns (particularly the anger-hostility component) are associated with cardiovascular disease and appear to be altered via exercise.
Exercise and increased fitness appear to be associated with increases in self-esteem, especially in low self-esteem individuals.
Using positive imagery and thought
Exercising commitment and determination
Well-developed coping strategies
Get to “know” your athletes before they become injured but if this is not possible, gather behavioral data from the individual and others who are familiar with them
Realize that individuals react differently in various situations
Vast changes from typical behavior should be noted – Intervene and make referrals when necessary