Phenomenological Approaches. Phenomenological Approaches. Propose that the individual’s subjective experience is important and unique The self actively shapes reality and personality Idiographic approach to the study of personality. Two main Approaches.
Kelly suggests that each person operates like a scientist, making observations performing inductive reasoning to try to formulate rules that explain how the world works. The model can be discarded and adapted along the way.
There are 3 basic steps:
People develop different systems of constructs
When construct systems fail to work
Our models or constructs about people do not always turn out to be accurate. For instance if we believe that an ideal partner is funny, good-looking and thoughtful. We may expect a stranger who had these characteristics to be a good partner. However when this does not occur and there is a discrepancy with our mental model we can:
Kelly developed the repertory grid as a means of formalising individuals’ systems of personal constructs.
Though – he believed in the use of good listening skills.
Belongingness and Love
Bandura’s triadic reciprocal determinism.
– real factors or statistical artifacts
Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism
Biological basis - two neural systems
A trait scale must be
An individual trait scale must satisfy three criteria: it must be stable, reliable and valid.
There are a number of different techniques which can be chosen for factor analysis, differing methods can lead to differing solutions. The various methods may be chosen to fit in with theories of personality or statistical theories.
There are three main points:
Eigen value reflects the amount of variance explained by each factor
Gray’s alternative model:
I feel very confident and sure of myself in almost all social situations.
I have less energy and get tired more quickly than most people.
So what is the evaluation so far??
Reading for Discussion