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Phenomenological Approaches. Phenomenological Approaches. Propose that the individual’s subjective experience is important and unique The self actively shapes reality and personality Idiographic approach to the study of personality. Two main Approaches.

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phenomenological approaches
Phenomenological Approaches
  • Propose that the individual’s subjective experience is important and unique
  • The self actively shapes reality and personality
  • Idiographic approach to the study of personality
two main approaches
Two main Approaches
  • Kelly 1905-1967 Personal Construct Theory
  • Rogers 1902-1987 Person Centred Theory
  • These theories have had a considerable impact on counselling.
  • Also other linked theories such as Maslow 1908 - 1968
kelly s personal construct theory 1955
Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory 1955

Kelly suggests that each person operates like a scientist, making observations performing inductive reasoning to try to formulate rules that explain how the world works. The model can be discarded and adapted along the way.

There are 3 basic steps:

  • observing behaviour,
  • trying to understand what is going,
  • testing whether this mental model actually works
kelly ii
Kelly II

People develop different systems of constructs

  • Different people will tend to notice different characteristics about others in order to interpret and predict their behaviour.
  • People differ in the way in which they use language
  • People’s own backgrounds and values will influence the way in which they construe behaviours
kelly iii
Kelly III

When construct systems fail to work

Our models or constructs about people do not always turn out to be accurate. For instance if we believe that an ideal partner is funny, good-looking and thoughtful. We may expect a stranger who had these characteristics to be a good partner. However when this does not occur and there is a discrepancy with our mental model we can:

  • Re-evaluate the person and their characteristics
  • The model can be expanded. Other characteristics may also make someone good partner
  • The model may be abandoned – other characteristics may need to be considered. (Abandoning the mental model can lead to feelings of threat and fear).
kelly iv
Kelly IV
  • Core Constructs: constructs that are used to understand oneself and one’s actions
  • Disruption to these constructs can lead to unpleasant emotional consequences:
    • Guilt
    • Threat
    • Fear
    • Hostility
    • Anxiety
    • Aggression
problems with kelly s approach
Problems with Kelly’s approach
  • Assumes people are generally self-aware and rational
  • It is difficult to view another’s world through their construct system
  • An individual may have a self-view which others do not agree with
  • Some individuals may not use the same distinctions
repertory grid technique
Repertory Grid Technique

Kelly developed the repertory grid as a means of formalising individuals’ systems of personal constructs.

Though – he believed in the use of good listening skills.

repertory grid technique1
Repertory Grid Technique
  • Element - an individual within their life eg brother, mother, partner
  • Psychological way in which elements differ from each other – not physical features or background
  • How are each of the elements construed? – rate the elements on a five point scale
  • What constructs does an individual use?
  • How does the individual construe certain key ‘elements’ in his or her life?
  • What are the relationships between the constructs?
  • What are the relationships between the elements?
the analysis of repertory grids
The analysis of repertory grids
  • Possibilities are endless
  • Eyeballing – give a general picture

Most analysis:

  • Patterns of similarities between the constructs
  • Similarities between the elements
applications of repertory grids
Applications of Repertory Grids
  • Occupational studies: understand how occupational groups view their professional environment. For instance General Practitioners (GPs) start with concepts such as ‘a good GP’, ‘a bad GP’, ‘myself as a good GP’ and perform same/different analysis to develop vocabulary.
  • Food research: compare different foods to elicit descriptions
  • Counselling: ‘myself as an alcoholic’, ‘myself as a I would like to be’
person centred theory rogers
Person Centred Theory - Rogers
  • It is the subjective experiences of the individual - the internal reality rather than the external reality that plays the key role in determining a person's behaviour.
  • The most important concept in Rogers’ theory is the ‘self’. Rogers thought that an individual had a unified mental picture of themselves which could be consciously examined and evaluated – the self-concept. Individuals want to get to know their true self – to stop behaving as they felt they ought to behave and just fulfilling demands of others.
rogers ii
Rogers II
  • Roger’s believed that a psychologically healthy individual is one who is in touch with their own emotional experiences, who ‘listens’ to their emotions and can express their true feelings openly and without distortion.
  • Roger’s believed that an individual’s personality can be best understood through building up an understanding of how they see the world
  • The most useful way of obtaining this understanding is through a careful clinical interview
rogers iii
Rogers III
  • Within all of us is an innate motivation an active, controlling drive toward fulfillment of our potentials.
  • The actualizing tendency has both a biological and a psychological aspect. The biological includes basic survival drives - need for water, food, and air. The psychological involves the development of potentials.
rogers client centred approach
Rogers’ Client-centred Approach
  • Carl Rogers (1902–1987)
    • self-concept
      • an individual’s thoughts and feelings about himself or herself in relation to others
    • ideal self
      • the self-concept we would most like to possess
      • happy people have a smaller discrepancy between their self-concept and their ideal self than those less happy
    • Q-sort method
      • a way of quantifying this discrepancy.
rogers client centred therapy continued
Rogers’ Client-centred Therapy (continued)
  • Congruence
    • no discrepancy between self-concept and ideal self.
  • Self-actualisation
    • full realisation of our potential as human beings.
  • Incongruence causes anxiety
    • denial
    • distortion.
  • Parental regard
    • unconditional positive regard
    • conditions of worth.
q sort
  • Can be used to assess the self concept, the impact of person-centred therapy, explore a particular issue.
  • The items or statements can be made up by a sensitive clinician, they can be from a standard personality questionnaire but the tendency is to use a standard set of items (the California Q-set) to cover most of the standard feelings about the self.
  • Items are self-referent statements e.g “I usually like people, ‘I don’t trust my emotions’, I am afraid of what other people may think of me.
  • More emphasis on feelings and emotions than Kelly
  • Ideas of being in touch with, able to express feelings
  • Interested in how the individual views the world – like Kelly
  • Rogers highlighted the importance of self-esteem.
  • Development of client-centred therapy.
  • It is difficult to evaluate the theory since it is more philosophical and less concrete.
  • Unconscious processes were not systematically explored.
  • Little evidence for the search of self-actualisation.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs




Belongingness and Love



  • People have two basic sets of needs that are rooted in their biology:
  • deficiency or basic needs
  • growth or meta needs.
  • B-cognition state - these are non-judgemental, self-validating, nonstriving and temporary.
  • D-cognition experiences - judging, condemning, and approving and disapproving of ourselves and others.
  • Few individuals reach self-actualisation.
  • Characteristics include - tolerance of others, spontaneity, a life mission, detachment, avoidance of fashions, peak experience
  • B-cognition is not permanent - D-cognition is necessary for survival.
  • People have a tendency towards personal development, emphasis on potential for and striving towards growth and fulfilment.
  • There is a trend towards self-fulfilment or self-actualisation across the lifespan.
  • Little evidence.
behavioural social cognitive approaches
Behavioural/Social-Cognitive Approaches

Bandura’s triadic reciprocal determinism.

  • Cognitive (and other individual factors)
  • Behaviour
  • Environment
albert bandura
Albert Bandura
  • Triadic reciprocal causation
    • personal factors, the environment, and behaviour all influence each other.
  • Observational learning
    • modelling is learning by observing someone else’s behaviour
    • vicarious reinforcement
      • when someone observes another person’s behaviour being rewarded or punished.
  • Bandura et al. (1963)
    • children were much more likely to imitate the behaviour of a model when the model’s behaviour was rewarded than when it was punished.
  • Observational learning and vicarious reinforcement are both important phenomena.
  • Observational learning helps us to understand individual differences.
  • Other factors may influence learning such as genetics.
  • It is hard to decide whether the observer’s behaviour embodies the same rule as the model’s behaviour or is it just mimicry?
self efficacy
  • Bandura (1977)
    • the ability to cope with a particular task or situation and achieve the desired outcome
    • an individual’s sense of self-efficacy in any given situation is determined by four factors
      • the individual’s previous experiences in that situation
      • relevant vicarious experiences
      • verbal or social persuasion
      • emotional arousal.
  • Dzewaltowski (1989)
    • self-efficacy measures predicted success in an exercise programme.
  • Dennis and Goldberg (1996)
    • self-efficacy played a major role in successful weight loss.
  • Stajkovic and Luthans (1998)
    • self-efficacy strongly associated with work-related performance.
  • Caprara et al. (1998)
    • the amount of self-efficacy predicted academic achievement, but the Big Five factors did not.
  • Self-efficacy and performance are strongly associated.
  • Self-efficacy plays an important role in motivation.
  • Self-efficacy ignores unconscious motivation.
  • It is difficult to infer causality between self-efficacy and performance.
self regulation
  • Bandura (1986)
    • the use of one’s cognitive processes to regulate and control one’s own behaviour
    • the use of self award if a given standard is achieved
    • the processes involved
      • self-observation
      • judgemental processes
      • self-reaction.
  • Kitsantas (2000)
    • people using self-regulation strategies generally perform better than those who make less use of such strategies
    • overweight students who didn’t lose weight used fewer self-regulation strategies than than those who did lose weight
    • overweight students who didn’t lose weight also had lower levels of self efficacy
    • see next slide.
trait approaches to personality
Trait Approaches to Personality
  • Early trait approach Galen perceived temperament as melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic and sanguine.
  • Suggests that a number of traits are basic to personality
  • Typically assessed by questionnaire.
  • Trait measures prove to be one of the most reliable and stable instruments in psychology.
factor analysis
Factor Analysis
  • Uses information about the correlations of items from questionnaires or other measures.
  • If items correlate highly with each other
    • it is assumed that they measure the same factor or trait.
  • Criticisms

– real factors or statistical artifacts

  • “Personality is the dynamic organisation within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristic behaviour and thought”.
  • Allport’s (1937) trait theory aimed to synthesise a nomothetic, explanatory theory of common traits with an idiographic account of individual traits. He saw personality as unified, as constantly evolving and changing, and as caused by forces within the person. Although situational influences have an effect it is the individual’s own perception of these forces that determines his or her behaviour.
  • Allport’s view of personality emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual and the internal cognitive and motivational process that influence behaviour.
cattell s 16 factor theory
Cattell's 16 factor theory
  • One step towards a taxonomy of personality traits grew out of an examination of the language used to describe personality attributes (Allport and Odbert, 1936).
  • Advocates of this procedure argue that the adjectives we use to describe people embody the accumulated observations of many previous generations. A systematic sifting of such trait adjectives night therefore give clues about individual differences.
  • This line of reasoning led to the development of a widely used personality inventory by Raymond Cattell (1957).
cattell s trait theory
Cattell’s Trait Theory
  • Fundamental lexical hypothesis
    • any major language will contain words describing all the main personality traits
  • BUT which adjectives will describe personality?
    • Allport and Odbert (1936) found over 4,500 words in the dictionary of relevance to personality.
  • Adjectives in themselves can mean different things depending on context how can they be used to describe personality?
cattell 16pf
Cattell 16PF
  • Cattell (1946)
    • Believed that all scientific advances depend on exact measurement
    • reduced adjectives to 16 source traits by using the technique of factor analysis
  • Formed the Cattell 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire.
  • 16PF has a massive popularity.
  • However the 16 factors have not been replicated
  • Barrett and Kline (1982)
    • obtained between seven and nine factors
    • these factors generally did not relate closely to those proposed by Cattell.
sample items from the 16pf
Sample items from the 16PF
  • I would rather work as:
    • An engineer
    • A social science teacher
  • I could stand being a hermit
    • True
    • False
  • I am careful to turn up when someone expects me
    • True
    • False
  • I would prefer to marry someone who is
    • A thoughtful companion
    • Effective in a social group
  • I would prefer to read a book on:
    • National social service
    • New scientific weapons
  • I trust strangers
    • Sometimes
    • Practically always
  • Cattell’s method a suitable way of identifying traits.
  • Cattell’s method thorough and systematic.
  • The approach is lacking in theory
  • Difficulty with replications
  • Cattell's scheme involves narrow traits.
  • It is possible to reduce Cattell's factors down - and they may interestingly be reduced to five.
main trait models of personality
Main trait models of personality
  • Three factor model – Eysenck
  • Five factor model – Costa and McCrae
  • There are a number of alternatives which have achieved some popularity which will be discussed also.
eysenck s model
Eysenck’s Model

Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism

Biological basis - two neural systems

  • Introversion/Extraversion differences are based upon levels of activity of the cortico-reticular loop
  • Neuroticism is related to the activity of the visceral brain
eysenck s model1
Eysenck’s Model
  • Neuroticism: anxious, depressed, guilt feelings, low self-esteem, tense, irrational, shy, moody, emotional. Linked to high autonomic arousal. High scorers at elevated risk for ‘neurotic’ disorders e.g. depression, anxiety.
  • Extraversion: sociable, lively, active, assertive, sensation-seeking, carefree, dominant, surgent, venturesome. Linked to low cortical arousal.
  • Psychoticism: aggressive, cold, egocentric, impersonal, impulsive, antisocial, unempathic, creative, tough-minded. High scorers at elevated risk for ‘psychotic’ disorders: e.g. schizoid, antisocial personality disorders.
eysenck s model2
Eysenck’s Model
  • Assessed by EPQ – 100 item
  • Has a Lie scale – related to social desirability
  • E and N – are the two most robust traits
  • P is skewed
personality theories and psychometrics
Personality Theories and Psychometrics


  • Trait theories of personality generally propose a number of factors
  • A scale for instance Neuroticism is a factor
  • The theory will suggest that the factors will explain individual differences in personality.
assessment of personality traits
Assessment of Personality Traits


A trait scale must be

  • stable
  • reliable
  • valid

Factor analysis

  • no. of factors
  • factor analytic method
  • position in space


  • A scale of candidate items covering the domain of interest is constructed and administered to a large representative group of people.
  • Factor analysis is a statistical technique which allows the identification of natural groupings in the data, i.e. groups of items which correlate highly with each other and weakly with members of other groups.
  • Factors are assessed for reliability (test-retest and internal) and validity (predictive, convergent, discriminant…).
formation of a scale
Formation of a scale


  • Items relating to a personality factor are constructed
  • These are administered to a large group of participants
  • Scored
  • Factor analysed
  • Those items which do not adequately capture the scale are dropped
  • Others may be added in
  • Process is repeated until scale shows high reliability (Cronbach alpha), test-retest,
  • Test validity of scale
scales ii
Scales II


  • The factor structure of models has been derived by this process, e.g. in lexical studies five factors tend to emerge, in Eysenck’s 3 factors emerge.
  • Cross-cultural studies show that both models replicate; particularly strong evidence for the FFM. Important finding – personality appears to be innate rather than depending on cultural influences.
  • The factor-analytic approach is not powerful enough to tell us which model is ‘right’, need theory in addition.
scales iii
Scales III


  • Notwithstanding the atheoretical approach of factor analysis, the development of the combined ‘toolkit’ of questionnaire design, reliability, validity and factor analysis has played a vital role in the development of trait models.
  • Lexical approach has been criticised for possibly prestructuring data, but FFM has emerged from datsets which could not have been prestructured.


  • Psychometrics of a scale

An individual trait scale must satisfy three criteria: it must be stable, reliable and valid.

  • For a scale to be stable it must have a high test-retest correlation over time.
    • Change with age (Eysenck, Eysenck, & Barrett, 1985)
    • Stable across time (Conley, 1984; Poguegeile & Rose, 1981)
  • Secondly, for a scale to be reliable it must show high internal consistency.
  • Thirdly, for a scale to be valid it must measure what it claims to measure. A scale can be reliable and stable but not be valid.


  • In order to gain a theory of personality more than one trait must be assessed.
  • A theory of personality must incorporate how traits relate to each other.
  • Personality questionnaires assess a number of different traits with items making up a particular scale.
  • Factor analysis simplifies these scales into a number of different factors. These are, in essence, mathematical models.
  • In order to satisfy criteria for factor analysis there are three essential points.
  • One the data must be suitable.
  • Each scale must have good reliability
  • There must be enough items to define the trait sufficiently.
psychometrics of a scale


Psychometrics of a scale

There are a number of different techniques which can be chosen for factor analysis, differing methods can lead to differing solutions. The various methods may be chosen to fit in with theories of personality or statistical theories.

There are three main points:

  • Number of factors extracted,
  • Method chosen to extract the factors
  • Type of rotation.
number of factors
Number of Factors
  • How do we know how many factors to extract from the data?
  • Theoretically, the same number of factors as items can be extracted.
  • But how do we simplify the questionnaire?
  • There are a number of guidelines to help choose the best number of factors to be extracted, so that each factor explains a meaningful amount of variance.
    • One method is to use the Scree plot (Cattell, 1996; Kline, 1994). This is a graph of eigen values.
scree plot
Scree plot


Eigen value reflects the amount of variance explained by each factor

methods and position
Methods and Position


  • Factor analytic methods - There are a number of methods which can be used to extract these factors. These methods vary in the assumptions regarding the amount of variance explained.
  • Position in space - factors can be uncorrelated (orthogonal) or correlated (oblique).
so what exactly does this all mean


So what exactly does this all mean??
  • Basically trying to summarise data into a manageable form
  • Find factors which are basic to personality – what does that mean?
  • Establish how those factors relate to each other
  • Next stage establish how factors relate to other constructs
criteria for personality traits
Criteria for personality traits
  • Which criteria are the most important for accepting a particular model of personality or whether a personality trait is basic is a point of debate.
  • Only when we have construct validity will the answers be clear.
  • The criteria in themselves develop as the theory of personality develops.
  • Most would argue that a theory of personality must be:
  • replicable
  • be able to be found in differing cultures
  • show heritability
  • show relation to underlying biological or physiological factors
  • be stable
psychometrics summary what do you need to know
Psychometrics summary - what do you need to know
  • Do you have a general understanding of:
  • Factor analysis
  • Scale formation
  • Theories of personality
eysenck s trait theory
Eysenck’s Trait Theory
  • H.J. Eysenck (1944)
    • neuroticism
      • trait consisting of anxiety, tension, depression, and other negative emotional states
    • extraversion
      • personality trait consisting mainly of sociability
    • psychoticism (added in 1978)
    • over-aroused introverts avoid stimulation
    • under-aroused extraverts seek stimulation
    • genetic basis for personality.
  • Almost complete separation of the Extraversion, Neuroticism and Psychoticism scales following factor analysis.
  • E and N are common to most of the well known personality questionnaires (Kline & Barrett, 1983)
  • Can found across cultures (Barrett & Eysenck, 1984).
  • Scales have been replicated many times
  • Kline (1993) comments that if we want a reliable and valid measure of E and N then the Eysenck's questionnaire is about as good as can be desired.
  • Criticism? - the three factors are broad.
  • Psychoticism (P) scale was very much skewed towards zero, particularly in females, and had low internal consistency. Also responses on each item are skewed.
  • The revised scale EPQ-R (Eysenck et al., 1985) has improved the P scale but it still has some of the original problems.
alternative to eysenck s
Alternative to Eysenck’s

Gray’s alternative model:

  • Behavioural inhibition system (BIS) links to punishment sensitivity, anxiety = high N, low E.
  • Behavioural activation system (BAS) links to reward sensitivity, impulsivity = high N, high E, high P
cloninger s three dimensions
Cloninger’s Three Dimensions
  • Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Novelty Seeking
  • Biologically based
  • Relate to monoamine system: Serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine
  • Questionnaire which has become popular in psychiatry

Trait descriptions

  • Harm Avoidance: fearless, carefree, sociable, energetic versus cautious, apprehensive, fatigable, inhibited
  • Novelty Seeking: impulsive, exploratory, vacillating, pain-prone, quick-tempered, extravagant versus reflective, frugal, rigid, loyal, slow-tempered, stoical
  • Reward Dependence: ambitious, industrious, desirous, sympathetic, warm, sentimental, mood versus sel-disciplined, unambitious, practical, tough-minded, detached, emotionally cool
sample questions
I often feel tense and worried in unfamiliar situations, even when others feel there is no danger at all.

I feel very confident and sure of myself in almost all social situations.

I have less energy and get tired more quickly than most people.


Sample Questions
sample questions ii

I often try new things just for fun or thrills, even if most people think it is a waste of time.

I hate to change the way I do things, even if many people tell me there is a new and better way to do it.

I often break rules and regulations when I think I can get away with it.

Sample Questions II
sample questions iii

I like to discuss my experiences and feelings openly with friends instead of keeping them to myself.

I usually do things my own way, rather than giving in to the wishes of other people.

People find it easy to come to be for help, sympathy, and warm understanding.

Sample Questions III
cloninger evaluation
Cloninger - Evaluation
  • Great face validity
  • Testable biological model
  • Difficulty in replicating structure
  • Harm Avoidance is the most robust factor
  • HA relates well to emotional disorders
  • HA is highly correlated with N but also explains some of E
  • Little biological evidence to date
five factor theory
Five-Factor Theory
  • The Big Five.
  • Norman (1963)
      • extraversion
      • agreeableness
      • conscientiousness
      • emotional stability
      • culture.
  • Costa and McRae (1992)
    • NEO-PI Five-Factor Inventory.
five factor model
Five Factor Model
  • Historically linked to the lexical approach to personality rather than to a biological approach.
  • Not derived from an underlying biological theory but were originally discovered by analysing natural language trait adjectives.
  • Through trial and error, item inclusion and exclusion and factor analysis personality scales were drawn up.
costa and mccrae
Costa and McCrae
  • Costa and McCrae searched the literature and identified traits and dispositions which appeared to be important to other theorists.
  • NEO-PI-R and the NEO-FFI. The NEO-PI-R is a 240 item questionnaire with 5 domains and each domain has 6 facets. The NEO-FFI is a shorter version measuring the same domains (60 item).
  • Evidence: these five factors can be found in numerous personality questionnaires) and across cultures
  • There are, however, many different big fives, which do not always correspond.
  • McCrae and Costa (1985, 1990)
    • five traits have been found numerous times
    • compared self-report measures with ratings by spouses
    • all the correlations between self-report and rating data were moderately high
    • between +0.53 and +0.59.
  • Plomin et al. (1997)
    • suggests about 40% of individual differences in personality are due to genetic factors.
  • Widiger and Costa (1994)
    • individuals with personality disorders have extreme scores on the Big Five factors.
validity of the big five
Validity of the Big Five
  • Paunonen (2003) Big Five factors of personality and replicated predictions of behaviour. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 411-424
  • Available on the web and in the library
Correlations between the Big Five factors and several external criteria. Based on data in Paunonen (2003).
  • The Big Five personality traits have been obtained repeatedly, using different questionnaires, across cultures.
  • Validity has been established for all five factors?
  • The factors are related meaningfully to the various personality disorders?
  • Some of the factors correlate with each other.
  • Some factors may be less important than others.
  • The approach is descriptive.
  • A quick and simple portrait of someone (McAdams, 1992).
observer measures of personality traits
Observer measures of personality traits
  • There is evidence that observers can accurately assess the traits of targets, ability to do this varies between traits. E vs N (trait visibility), E vs O (variability of trait expression between situations).
  • Rating easier to do if rater knows the target well, especially if the trait is of low visibility and/or high variability, but ‘zero—acquaintance’ ratings are often reasonably accurate.
  • Rating can be done using any ‘medium’ in which personality is expressed: written texts (Pennebaker & King, 1999), bedrooms, offices, music collections, websites (e.g. Gosling et al, 2002).
  • Accuracy shown by (a) good inter-rater reliability, (b) large correlations between self- and peer-reports.
what we have covered so far
What we have covered so far
  • Number of approaches to the study of individual differences in personality:
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Phenomenological
    • Social/cognitive behavioural
    • Trait
  • Within Trait
    • Theories of personality
    • How to form a questionnaire, scale
    • Basics of factor analytic theory
how do we evaluate the different trait models of personality
How do we evaluate the different trait models of personality?
  • Which criteria are the most important for accepting a particular model of personality or whether a personality trait is basic is a point of debate.
  • Only when we have construct validity will the answers be clear.
  • The criteria in themselves develop as the theory of personality develops.
  • Most would argue that a theory of personality must be:
  • replicable
  • be able to be found in differing cultures
  • show heritability
  • show relation to underlying biological or physiological factors
  • be stable

So what is the evaluation so far??

what factors are basic to personality
What factors are basic to personality?

Reading for Discussion

  • Eysenck, H. J. (1992). 4 Ways 5 Factors Are Not Basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(6), 667-673.
  • Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). 4 Ways 5 Factors Are Basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(6), 653-665.

Further reading

    • Eysenck, H. J. (1991). Dimensions of Personality - 16, 5 or 3 - Criteria For a Taxonomic Paradigm. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(8), 773-790.