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Unit 10: Meat and Poultry Identification. These are some of the costliest items on the menu, but most profitable; care in handling is of the utmost importance. Inspection. All meats sold to the public must be inspected Inspection is mandatory

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unit 10 meat and poultry identification

Unit 10: Meat and Poultry Identification

These are some of the costliest items on the menu, but most profitable; care in handling is of the utmost importance

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

inspection
Inspection
  • All meats sold to the public must be inspected
  • Inspection is mandatory
  • Occurs at various times—on the farm, plant slaughterhouse, processing area
  • Done by federal inspectors
  • Paid for by taxpayers
  • Inspectors ensure that:
    • Animals are free from disease
    • Farms are operated in accordance with appropriate standards for safety, cleanliness, and health
    • Meat is wholesome and fit for human consumption

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

grading
Grading
  • Grading is voluntary
  • Done by USDA using specific standards of quality
  • Meat packer absorbs the cost of grading and will pass it on to consumers
  • Packer may choose to do the grading, and this is called “no-rolls”
  • In-house grades must meet or exceed the USDA standards

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

grading guidelines
Grading Guidelines
  • Overall carcass shape
  • Ratio of fat to lean
  • Ratio of meat to bone
  • Color
  • Marbling (beef only)
  • Grade will be applied to all cuts
  • Yield grades, another type of grading, measure edible meat yield, known by butchers as “cutability”

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

receiving
Receiving
  • Very perishable
  • Check temperature of meat upon receipt
  • Insert a thermometer between packages without puncturing the packaging
  • Should be received at 41°F (5°C)
  • Check for temperature and cleanliness of truck
  • Check for leaking cryovac or bloody boxes
  • Check for discoloration

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

storage
Storage
  • Refrigerate immediately
  • Store at or below 41°F (5°C)
  • Place on trays to prevent dripping onto other foods, place meat on lower shelves
  • Keep different meats separated
  • Store vacuum-packed meats right in their boxes
  • Once unwrapped, store in air-permeable paper
  • Cook meats with short shelf lives first
  • Do not over stock

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

market forms of meat
Market Forms of Meat
  • Carcass is cut to manageable pieces
  • Sides, quarters, saddles
  • Next, cut to primal cuts
  • Next, to subprimals
  • Next, to retail cuts for hotels and restaurants
  • Many restaurants and hotels will cut subprimals to retail cuts
  • Portions or portion control cuts are also known as retail cuts

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

slide9
Beef
  • Flavor and color is influenced by several factors:
    • Amount of exercise the muscle gets
    • Type of feed
    • Breed, age, gender, amount of aging
    • Where on the carcass the muscle is located
  • More-exercised muscles on a beef carcass are best suited for slower or moist-cooking methods
  • Less-exercised muscles are suitable for grilling, broiling, roasting

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

grades
Grades
  • USDA grades start with the best being Prime (high-end restaurants)
  • Then Choice (foodservice industry)
  • Select (retail markets mostly)
  • Standard (processed products)
  • Commercial
  • Utility
  • Cutter
  • Canner

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

primal cuts
Primal Cuts
  • Round primal cuts are most suitable for braising or roasting (most-exercised muscles)
  • Loin primal cuts are most suitable for fast, dry-cooking methods as they are less exercised than the other muscles on the carcass
  • Chuck primals are most exercised and are great for moist methods, grinding, stewing, marinating
  • Variety meats or offal cuts, such as liver, tongue, kidneys, oxtail, intestines, heart, and lungs are used in specialty applications such as sausages, puddings, ethnic dishes

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

slide12
Veal
  • Comes from calf about 12 weeks old
  • Calf has only eaten milk or formula
  • Meat is pinkish gray
  • Split in half after slaughter
  • Comes in foresaddle, hindsaddle
  • Primal cuts are shoulder, shank, loin, and leg
  • Grades are Prime, Choice, Good, Standard, Utility, and Cull

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

primal cuts of veal
Primal Cuts of Veal
  • Leg yields the shank, heel, rounds, knuckle, eye, butt tenderloin; suitable for most dry methods of cooking, except for the shank
  • The loin yields the tenderloin, veal loin, strip loin, suitable for dry methods of cooking
  • The hotel rack yields the split rack, chop ready rack, Frenched veal wrack; suitable for dry methods of cooking
  • The square cut shoulder yields the cut shoulder and the clod; suitable for moist methods of cooking or grinding

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

variety cuts of veal
Variety Cuts of Veal
  • Very highly prized and versatile
    • Braised cheeks
    • Poached tongue
    • Sweet breads
    • Calve’s liver
    • Heart and kidneys
    • Brains
    • Feet (used for head cheese)

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

slide15
Pork
  • Meat of domesticated pig
  • Among most popular meats sold in the U.S.
  • Slaughtered at 12 months
  • Cuts are slightly different; split in two halves
  • Loin is cut longer
  • Primal cuts include leg or ham, shoulder butt, and the loin
  • Subprimal are spareribs, bacon, jowls, and clear-plate and fatback

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

grades16
Grades
  • USDA starts at 1, being the best, 2, 3, 4 and Utility grades
  • Ham primal cuts include hock, bone-in or boneless ham
  • Loin cuts are tenderloin, center cut pork loin, boneless loin, baby back ribs; used mostly for dry-heat methods
  • The Boston butt primal includes the Boston butt bone-in and the cottage butt; used for roasting, sautéing, stewing
  • Picnic primal cuts are bone-in or bone-out, and used for braising and stewing
  • Additional cuts are bacon, jowl (used mostly as a flavor enhancer), salt pork, spareribs, and fatback
  • Offal cuts from the pig include neck bones, liver, heart, intestines, kidneys, caul fat

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

lamb and mutton
Lamb and Mutton
  • Lamb is tender, young domestic sheep
  • Mutton is older, stronger, and not as tender
  • Texture of milk-fed lamb is delicate in color and flavor; grass-fed lamb has more pronounced flavor
  • Highly prized at Easter by many ethnic groups
  • Most lamb is finished on a grain diet, butchered at 6–7 months
  • Lamb over 16 months is sold as mutton
  • Cut into fore- and hindsaddle, then broken into sides, racks, legs, shoulders, loins, shanks

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

grades of lamb
Grades of Lamb
  • Prime, Choice, Good, Utility, and Cull
  • Legs, same as veal, used for dry and moist methods, mostly all tender due to size and age, shank and heel are usually braised
  • Loin, trimmed and split, boneless loin and tenderloin, like most four-legged animals, very tender and suitable for quick, dry methods
  • Hotel rack comes split with chine removed
  • Shoulder includes the neck, foreshank, and square cut chuck (boneless)
  • Variety meats include the tongue, liver, heart, kidneys, and intestines (great for small sausages)

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

venison and furred game
Venison and Furred Game
  • Commercially raised for restaurants
  • Dark, very lean meat, often needs to be barded or larded
  • Flavor, color, and texture is a direct result of age, diet, season
  • Venison is the term for large game animals: moose, deer, elk, reindeer
  • Bison and boar are also very popular, boar having a tendency to be tough
  • Same general rules apply to these animal
  • Most-used muscles need to be cooked by moist methods, more tender muscles cooked by dryer methods
  • Rabbit is becoming very popular as it is lean and tender
  • Sizes range from 2 ½ pounds to hares of up to 12 pounds

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

trimming fabricating
Trimming/Fabricating
  • For roasting, leave a little fat for self-basting
  • Remove all silverskin, gristle, and connective tissue
  • For shaping medallions, use cheesecloth, wrap tightly or twist and tighten; press with the heel of your hand firmly and shape
  • For cutlets, slice across the grain, place the meat between wax paper or clear wrap, place on a dense surface and slightly pound with a mallet, cleaver, or heavy, small skillet
  • Different meats need more or less pressure when pounding

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

cubing and mincing
Cubing and Mincing
  • Used for tougher meats for stewing and grinding
  • Remove surface fat and connective tissue
  • Cut along seams
  • Cut into even sizes and shapes
  • Store in clean containers, covered until use
  • These cuts are great to marinate

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

mincing
Mincing
  • Trim tender cuts as you have already seen
  • Slice into thin slivers or slices, always across the meat fibers
  • Hold in clean containers for service, not too deep as this will promote purging of moisture

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

tying a roast trussing
Tying a Roast (Trussing)
  • Secure knots that slide (half-hitch knot works well)
  • You can use one piece or cut and tie each piece
  • This takes a little practice but the tying promotes even cooking, uniform shape, retention of moisture, easy slicing, and better eye appeal
  • Be sure to trim away unneeded fat and all connective tissue
  • You can wrap flavored sliced fat under the skin

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

grinding meats
Grinding Meats
  • Most establishments buy bulk ground meat, but many places making forcemeats would rather grind their own
  • This calls for special attention to sanitation
  • All tools should be clean, sanitized, and well chilled
  • Blades must be sharp
  • Meat must be well trimmed, cut to the size that eliminates forcing through the grinder head
  • Start with a large die and progress to the smallest or to the desired size
  • Sometimes diced meat can be partially frozen for the best results

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

poultry
Poultry
  • Refers to any domestic bird used for human consumption
  • Chicken is the most popular
  • Poultry must undergo mandatory inspection
  • Must be chilled to 26°F (–3°C) during processing
  • Grades are A, B, C, A being mostly used in the foodservice industry

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

choosing quality
Choosing Quality
  • Poultry should have plump breasts and meaty thighs
  • Skin intact with no punctures or tears
  • Always purchased from reputable purveyors
  • Kept chilled to below 32°F (0°C) during storage
  • Placed on drip pans on the lowest shelves, preferably close to a drain
  • Age, size, and fat content determine the cooking method

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

ratites
Ratites
  • Ostrich, emus, and rhea are flightless birds known as ratites
  • The meat is sold as steaks, fillets, medallions, roasts, and ground meat
  • Most of the meat comes from the fan (leg and thigh area)
  • There is little meat on the front of the bird as it has no need of a large breast muscle, only a covering

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

poultry fabrication
Poultry Fabrication
  • Most trim is useable for stocks
  • Most poultry is trimmed similarly
  • Wing tips removed, fat pulled off, disjointed at the pelvic bone, leg and thigh separated, breast split
  • Trussing promotes a smooth, compact shape, even cooking, and moisture retention
  • Many poultry items come boneless, probably the most popular is the breast
  • Can be ordered boneless, skinless
  • Younger poultry splits and cuts easily as the bones are still very cartilaginous
  • Disjointing is easy in most birds as a knife is passed between the joints and the muscles separated

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.