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Unified Modeling Language (UML). CSCI 6050 Software Engineering January 19, 2005 Trentin Bishop Micah Lewis Amit Mathew Rufin Tshinanga Stephen Upchurch. Why do we need models?. To create a simplified representation of a real software system. What is UML?.

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unified modeling language uml

Unified Modeling Language (UML)

CSCI 6050 Software Engineering

January 19, 2005

Trentin Bishop

Micah Lewis

Amit Mathew

Rufin Tshinanga

Stephen Upchurch

why do we need models
Why do we need models?

To create a simplified representation of a real software system

what is uml
What is UML?
  • A popular, standardized modeling language for object-oriented software
  • The Object Management Group (OMG) is the group that dictates the UML standard
  • Created by Grady Booch, James Rumbaugh, and Ivar Jacobson
uml models
UML Models
  • Functional Models
    • Use case diagrams
  • Structural Models
    • Class diagrams
  • Dynamic/Behavioral Models
    • Statechart diagrams
    • Sequence diagrams
    • Activity diagrams
uml conventions
UML Conventions
  • Rectangles are classes or instances
  • Ovals are functions or use cases
  • Instances are underlined
  • Types are not underlined
poseidon for uml
Poseidon for UML
  • Available from http://www.gentleware.com/
  • Get the free Community Edition
  • Caveat: Slow on older computers, a little sluggish on newer ones
use case diagrams9
Use case diagrams
  • Describes the functional behavior of the system from the user’s point of view
  • Used during the requirements elicitation stage to represent external behavior
  • Actor: User, external system, or a physical environment
  • Use case: a class of functionality provided by the system as an event flow
    • Has entry and exit conditions, flow of events, and participating actors
use case diagram symbols
Use case diagram symbols



Use case


use case example
Use case example

Report location

Find arrival times


GPS System

Report error

use case example explanation
Use case example explanation
  • Actors don’t have to be people
  • Shows how actors interact with the system
  • Three use cases
uml class diagram
UML Class Diagram
  • Depict the classes within the model
  • Illustrates the class attributes (member variables), operations (member functions), and relationships with other classes
uml class diagram symbols

Class 1

Class 2

Class 1

Class 2

Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

UML Class Diagram Symbols


Class Name

Number of links each class object may contain


Composition relationship

Class 1 is composed of a Class 2


A collection of other classes

Inheritance relationship

Class 2 and Class 3 derive from Class 1

uml class diagram example














UML Class Diagram Example

SimpleWatch class contains

2 PushButtons

1 Display

2 Batteries

1 Time

uml class diagram example17
UML Class Diagram Example


uml class diagram example18
UML Class Diagram Example

The class Order is associated with the class Customer

The multiplicity denotes the number of objects

For example, Order object can be associated only one customer but a customer can be associated to many orders

uml statechart diagram
UML Statechart Diagram
  • A statechart diagram shows the behavior of classes in response to external stimuli
  • This diagram models the dynamic flow of control from state to state within a system.
basic statechart diagram symbols and notations
Basic Statechart Diagram Symbols and Notations
  • States represent situations during the life of an object
  • A solid arrow represents the path between different states of an object
  • A filled circle followed by an arrow represents the object's initial state.
  • An arrow pointing to a filled circle nested inside another circle represents the object's final state.
description of state chart diagram

Display alarm time

Display clock time

No sound

Sound on


Playing radio




Hold alarm

Alarm switch off

Change Hrs/Min



Do/wait for clock time to alarm time

Description of state chart diagram
sequence diagrams25
Sequence Diagrams
  • Describe the dynamic behavior between actors and the system and between objects of the system
  • Used during requirements analysis
    • To refine use case descriptions
    • To find additional objects
  • Used during system design
    • To refine subsystem interfaces
sequence diagram notation
Sequence diagram notation
  • Classes are represented by columns
  • Messages are represented by arrows
  • Activations represented by narrow rectangles
  • Lifelines are represented by dashed lines
example sequence diagram for simplewatch
Example:- sequence diagram for SimpleWatch


- | - :SimpleWatch:Display:Time

/ \ | | |

:WatchUser | | |

pressButton1() blinkHours() |

――――――― ―――――――――――― |

pressButton1() | blinkMinutes() | |

――――――― ―――――――――――― |


pressButton2() | | |

――――――― | incrementMinutes() |


| | refresh()

pressButton1And2() | ―――――――――――――

――――――― |

| commitNewTime() |





example cont
Example cont.

-The left-most column represents the timeline of the WatchUser who initiates the use case.

-The other columns represent the timeline of the objects that participate in this use case.

References: Page 33 Object-Oriented Software Engineering Bernd Bruegge, Allen H. Dutoit

activity diagrams30
Activity Diagrams
  • Used to represent the behavior of a system in terms of activities and their precedence constraints
  • Compared to flowchart diagrams because …
    • They can be used to represent control flow (order in which operations occur)
    • They can be used to represent data flow (objects exchanged among operations)

The completion of an activity triggers an outgoing transition which may initiate another activity


- Synchronization of the control flow

- Activities in the system

- Transitions between activities

activity diagram example
Activity Diagram Example











example explained
Example Explained
  • The 1st activity initiated is Open Activity. After all the operations in this activity have been executed, the activities Allocate Resources, Coordinate Resources & Document Incident are initiated. (Note: There is a complex transition between Open Activity and the next three activities).
  • These three activities may occur in sequence or concurrently.
  • Even if the three activities don’t occur concurrently, Archive Incident is not initiated until all three have been completed.
  • B. Bruegge, A. Dutoit. Object-Oriented Software Engineering: Using UML, Patterns and Java, Second Edition. 2003.