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Doug Cheney, Ph.D., Washington PBIS Coordinator, University of Washington, Seattle, dcheney@u.washington.edu Kimberli Breen, M.S., C.A.S., M.A., Technical Assistance Director, IL-PBIS Network, kimbreen@rcn.com Jennifer Rose, M.Ed., Loyola University Chicago, jrose4@luc.edu.

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universal school wide screening to identify students for tier 2 tier 3 interventions

Doug Cheney, Ph.D.,

Washington PBIS Coordinator, University of Washington, Seattle, dcheney@u.washington.edu

Kimberli Breen, M.S., C.A.S., M.A.,

Technical Assistance Director, IL-PBIS Network,

kimbreen@rcn.com

Jennifer Rose, M.Ed., Loyola University Chicago, jrose4@luc.edu

Universal School-wide Screening to Identify Students for Tier 2/Tier 3 Interventions

2008 National Forum for Implementers of School-Wide PBS

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

Schools in the Washington PBIS network

Schools in the Illinois PBIS network

Paul Rose, Counselor, Cowherd Middle School - East Aurora School District: prose.cowherd@d131.org

Dr. Meda Thompson, Principal, B.J. Ward Elementary - Valley View School District: THOMPSONMK@365u.will.k12.il.us

Carolyn Olander, School Psychologist, B.J. Ward Elementary - Valley View School District:

carrie.olander@hotmail.com

session agenda
Session Agenda

Background and Context for using Screening

Some evidence from Washington schools using SSBD

Application of using SSBD in Illinois

Discussion of using Screening Tools

universal screening
Universal Screening

Reliable Tools available for past 20 years

Universal screening offers opportunity for prevention, yet….

Schools reluctant to conduct behavioral screening:

Fear of “stigmatizing kids”

Concerns regarding efficient/effective methods of supporting identified youth

Source: Walker, Cheney, Stage, Blum (2005)

pbis systems often
PBIS Systems Often:

Develop behavior support team

Monitor ODRs and teacher referral

Use school or ODR criteria (2-5 ODR) to nominate students for Tier 2

Capture externalizing disruptive students

universal school wide behavioral screening
Universal (school-wide) behavioral screening :

Addresses prevalence of emotional/behavior problems among school-age children ranges between 9%-13% (Tier 2 & 3 Students)

Provides a valid and reliable approach for identifying student behavioral issues

Externalizing and Internalizing students are identified

Highlights schools as an ideal environment for addressing mental health-related issues

“Less stigmatizing” than clinics

Potential to reach large groups of youth and families

Successfully identify kids with internalizing behaviors

universal screening7
Universal Screening

Behavioral screening viewed as normative, e.g., Vision, Hearing, Literacy

Good fit with RTI behavior model

Links to prevention programs & reduces need for more intensive services later

Untreated emotional/behavioral issues correlate with negative outcomes

Poor grades & personal relationships

High school dropout & Unemployment

Incarceration, Substance abuse, Suicide

systematic screening for behavior disorders ssbd walker severson 1992
Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD; Walker & Severson, 1992)
  • Research in the 1980s on predictors
  • Multiple gating procedures following mental health model
  • Externalizing and Internalizing dimensions
  • Evidence for efficiency, effectiveness, & cost benefits
  • Exemplary, evidence-based practice
      • US Office of Special Education, Council for Children with Behavior Disorders, National Diffusion Network
slide9

Multiple Gating Procedure (Severson et al. 2007)

Teachers Rank Order 3 Ext. & 3 Int. Students

Gate 1

Pass Gate 1

Teachers Rate Top 3 Students on Critical Events, Adaptive & Maladaptive Scales

Gate 2

Tier 2,3

Intervention

Pass Gate 2

Gate 3

Classroom & Playground Observations

Tier 3 Intervention or Special Ed. Referral

gating procedures
Gating Procedures
  • Gate 1 – Nomination based on Definitions
  • Gate 2 – Score and Criteria for:
    • Critical Events – Steals, Tantrums, Assaults adults, Damages property, Painful Shyness
    • Combined Frequency Index
      • Adaptive Behavior – Follows rules, Gains peer attention positively, Expresses anger appropriately, Positive socials with peers
      • Maladaptive Behavior – Refuses to participate in activities, Challenges teacher limits/rules, Manipulates peers, pouts/sulks
ssbd history in washington
SSBD History in Washington
  • Used in research over the past 10 years
    • 10 districts statewide
  • School psychs review & adopt for district
  • Teachers informed & process reviewed in staff meeting
  • Screening takes 1-2 hours per teacher to complete
  • Tier 2 Students identified
washington schools study 1 walker cheney stage blum 2005
Washington Schools: Study 1Walker, Cheney, Stage, & Blum (2005)

3 Elem. Schools, 80/80 SET, 1999-2003

124 students (70 Ext./54 Int.) Ext. > 1 s.d. on Social Skills and Prob Behs./ Not Int.

Screening & ODR: >ODR, >Prob. Behs.

Screening+ODR increases # of at-risk students

Screening and use of school supports maintains students at SST level (Gate 2 Tier 2), and fewer FBA/BSP or referred to Special Ed (Gate 3, Tier 3)

study 2 cheney stage hawken lynass mielenz waugh in review
Study 2:Cheney, Stage, Hawken, Lynass, Mielenz, & Waugh (in review)

119 Tier 2 CCE Intervention, 86 Comparison Students in 18 schools

73/119 students (61%) graduate within 2 yrs

SSBD & Behavioral Measures differentiate graduates, comparisons, nongraduates.

Graduates lower problem behaviors & increase social skills in growth curve model.

universal screening in illinois
Universal Screening in Illinois
  • 6 school districts, 18 schools
  • Spent 1 year focused on creating Secondary & Tertiary Level Systems
    • Specifically Check-in/Check-out
  • Emphasis on building “system capacity”
      • Identify youth early
      • Support youth with effective interventions
      • Exit/transition youth off of interventions
      • Progress-monitor
        • Individual youth response to interventions
        • Interventions themselves
universal screening in illinois preparation process
Universal Screening in Illinois: Preparation Process
  • District-level commitment
  • Secondary PBIS system in place
    • Provides seamless transition from screening to intervention
  • Logistics of preparation
      • SSBD Coordinator
      • Overview for all staff
      • Schedule & organize ‘day of administration’
universal screening school profile

K-5 Elementary in southwest suburban Chicago

  • 65+% low income
  • Total enrollment of 580 reflects diverse student
  • population
    • 65% Hispanic
    • 17% Black
    • 13% White
    • 5% Asian/Other
  • 24% Mobility
  • Truancy concerns

Universal Screening: School Profile

universal screening illinois application
Universal Screening: Illinois Application
  • Implemented universal screening in mid-March
    • Identified total of 82 students
      • Represents 14% of enrollment
    • Majority of students classified as externalizers
      • 56% of identified students
    • However a significant percentage (43%) met criteria as internalizers
universal screening illinois application23
Universal Screening:Illinois Application
  • Capitalized upon existing system of secondary interventions
    • Recruited additional adult volunteers for CICO
    • Paired 2-4 students for CICO with adults, prior to sending permission slips
    • Tailored secondary level interventions to meet unique needs of internalizers (e.g., using social skills groups)
    • Contacted parents of internalizers prior to sending home permission slips
    • Used SWIS/CICO data collection system
universal screening illinois application24
Universal Screening:Illinois Application
  • Lessons learned:
    • Address slow response for granting permission
      • Incorporate area on permission slips for parents to request additional information
      • Anticipate need for follow-up phone calls, sending additional permission slips
universal screening illinois application25
Universal Screening:Illinois Application
  • Lessons learned:
    • Pair students and teachers based on physical proximity
    • Increase size of CICO groups
    • Keep a “reserve” of adults to add to CICO
    • Review data weekly
      • Identify students ready to transition to less intensive level of support/students who are not responding to CICO
resources
Resources

Severson, H.H., Walker, H.M., Hope-Dolittle, J., Kratochwill, T.R., Gresham, F.M. (2007). Proactive, early screening to detect behaviorally at-risk students: Issues, approaches, emerging innovations, and professional practices. Journal of School Psychology. 45, 193-223.

Walker, H.M., Severson, H.H. (1992). Systematic screening for behavior disorders. Longmont, CO. Sopris West.

Walker, B., Cheney, D., Stage, S., Blum, C. (2005). Schoolwide screening and positive behavior supports: Identifying and supporting students at risk for school failure. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 7(4) 194-204.