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College 4: Natuurlijke Klassen

College 4: Natuurlijke Klassen

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College 4: Natuurlijke Klassen

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  1. College 4: Natuurlijke Klassen • eerste uur: criteria feature theorieën natuurlijke klassen en sonoriteit • tweede uur: problematische processen: • flapping • intrusive stop formation • frisian nasalisation

  2. Feature Geometry Clements CV-tier root tier lar. tier supralar. tier voice c.glot. sp.glot. place manner velar strid. contin. labial nasal alveolar

  3. Feature Geometry 3D CV-tier root tier lar. tier supralar. tier voice manner place nasal contin. velar alveolar labial

  4. Feature Geometry /np/ CV-tier root tier lar. tier supralar. tier voice manner place nasal contin. velar alveolar labial

  5. Feature Geometry /np/ CV-tier root tier lar. tier supralar. tier voice manner place nasal contin. velar alveolar labial

  6. Feature Geometry /np/ CV-tier root tier lar. tier supralar. tier voice manner place nasal contin. velar alveolar labial

  7. Feature Geometry /np/ [mp] CV-tier root tier lar. tier supralar. tier voice manner place nasal contin. velar alveolar labial

  8. Feature Geometry Clements CV-tier root tier lar. tier supralar. tier voice c.glot. sp.glot. place manner velar strid. contin. labial nasal alveolar

  9. Feature Geometry McCarthy son cons root tier lar. tier nasal contin. place voice c.glot. sp.glot. coronal labial pharyngeal dorsal lateral distr. anter. round Kritiek op Padgett

  10. Feature Geometry Pulleyblank CV-tier tonal tier root tier raised upper lar. tier supralar. tier voice sp.glot. place sonorant nasal contin. coronal dorsal pharyngeal labial back high low anter. ATR distr. round

  11. Criteria Feature Geometrieën • A phonological feature system must be able to distinguish all vowel and consonant segments to be phonemically contrastive, and (preferably) only those

  12. Criteria Feature Geometrieën • A phonological feature system must be able to distinguish all vowel and consonant segments to be phonemically contrastive, and (preferably) only those • It must make it possible to refer to natural classes of sounds, and only those, by a single set of feature specifications

  13. Criteria Feature Geometrieën • A phonological feature system must be able to distinguish all vowel and consonant segments to be phonemically contrastive, and (preferably) only those • It must make it possible to refer to natural classes of sounds, and only those, by a single set of feature specifications • It must account for natural groupings of features, i.e. it must distinguish features that tend to function together in phonological rules from those that do not Model Padgett

  14. Criteria Feature Geometrieën • A phonological feature system must be able to distinguish all vowel and consonant segments to be phonemically contrastive, and (preferably) only those • It must make it possible to refer to natural classes of sounds, and only those, by a single set of feature specifications • It must account for natural groupings of features, i.e. it must distinguish features that tend to function together in phonological rules from those that do not • Within the context of a theory of markedness, it must distinguish between more- and less-favored vowel and consonant inventories

  15. Criteria Feature Geometrieën • A phonological feature system must be able to distinguish all vowel and consonant segments to be phonemically contrastive, and (preferably) only those • It must make it possible to refer to natural classes of sounds, and only those, by a single set of feature specifications • It must account for natural groupings of features, i.e. it must distinguish features that tend to function together in phonological rules from those that do not • Within the context of a theory of markedness, it must distinguish between more- and less-favored vowel and consonant inventories • It must make use of non-abstract features, that is, features that have a core of invariant cross-linguistic acoustic and articulatory properties

  16. Criteria Feature Geometrieën • A phonological feature system must be able to distinguish all vowel and consonant segments to be phonemically contrastive, and (preferably) only those • It must make it possible to refer to natural classes of sounds, and only those, by a single set of feature specifications. • It must account for natural groupings of features, i.e. it must distinguish features that tend to function together in phonological rules from those that do not. • Within the context of a theory of markedness, it must distinguish between more- and less-favored vowel and consonant inventories • It must make use of non-abstract features, that is, features that have a core of invariant cross-linguistic acoustic and articulatory properties

  17. Natuurlijke Klasse • Verzameling fonemen waarop dezelfde regels van toepassing zijn Voor de karakterisering van de klasse zijn minder kenmerken nodig dan voor de karakterisering van ieder foneem afzonderlijk

  18. Functie Features • woordonderscheidende klankverschillen aangeven: /t/ vs. /d/; /t/ vs. /s/ • aanwijzing articulatie: /s/ vs. /z/ (cf. fonetiek) • karakterisering natuurlijke klassen: /s/ vs. /l/

  19. Major Class Features flapping insertieregel verkeinwoord

  20. [sonorant] • sonorant sounds are produced with a vocal tract configuration sufficiently open that air pressure inside and outside the mouth is approximately equal (Halle & Clements)

  21. [sonorant] • sonorant sounds are produced with a vocal tract configuration sufficiently open that air pressure inside and outside the mouth is approximately equal (Halle & Clements) • sonorant zijn klanken die zo worden gearticuleerd dat de stembanden spontaan gaan trillen (Booij, Kerstens & Verkuyl) (echter: Hopi)

  22. [sonorant] • sonorant sounds are produced with a vocal tract configuration sufficiently open that air pressure inside and outside the mouth is approximately equal (Halle & Clements) • sonorant zijn klanken die zo worden gearticuleerd dat de stembanden spontaan gaan trillen (Booij, Kerstens & Verkuyl) (echter: Hopi) • sonorante klanken hebben een relatief hoge sonoriteit (Booij)

  23. Primaire functie: aanduiding natuurlijke klasse [sonorant] • Def. Poging:Bij sonorante klanken passeert de luchtstroom zonder veel tegenwerking van de articulatieorganen door de mond-, neus- en/of keelholte • Obstructie is relatief: bijvoorbeeld bij vocalen minder dan bij nasalen

  24. Primaire functie: aanduiding natuurlijke klasse [sonorant] • Def. Poging: Bij sonorante klanken passeert de luchtstroom zonder veel tegenwerking van de articulatieorganen door de mond-, neus- en/of keelholte • Vocalen /a,i,u, .../, glides /j,w/, liquids /l,r/ en nasalen /n,m,…/ zijn [+son] • Obstruenten /p,t,k,b,d,f,s,z,x,…/ zijn [-son]

  25. Feature Geometry Clements CV-tier root tier lar. tier supralar. tier voice c.glot. sp.glot. manner place labial velar sonorant strid. contin. nasal alveolar

  26. Feature Geometry McCarthy son cons root tier lar. tier nasal contin. place voice c.glot. sp.glot. coronal labial dorsal pharyngeal lateral distr. anter. round

  27. Feature Geometry Pulleyblank CV-tier tonal tier root tier raised upper lar. tier supralar. tier voice sp.glot. place sonorant nasal contin. coronal dorsal pharyngeal labial back high low anter. ATR distr. round

  28. Delinking Supralaryngeal Node Steven (2;2) target: realisation: lekkers // ‘tasty’ [h] roe /ru/ ‘birch’ [hu]

  29. Natuurlijke Klassen

  30. Insertieregel  [] / +son [-cor] $ +cons -nas data:half, Belg, melk, darm, durf, borg, hark niet: soms, hars, hart, vals, geefs, België uitzondering: doorn, lantaarn Major Class Features

  31. Verkleinwoorden school schooltje schol scholletje schaar schaartje schar scharretje steur steurtje ster sterretje aal aaltje val valletje kom kommetje ton tonnetje tong tongetje Major Class Features

  32. Problematische beregelingenw.b. indeling natuurlijke klassen1. flapping

  33. Flapping • flapping intervocalisch vb. Box Tops (1967) (Amerikaans) letter SPE: /t/  / V _ V

  34. FlappingAmerikaans-Engels ? • Flapping vb. Pretty Things (Engels) letter; city (1970) (geen flapping) city (1965) (flapping) SPE: /t/  / V _ V

  35. Flapping & Stress 1 • Flapping vb. Split Enz (1980) attack (geen flapping) SPE: /t/  / V _ V (V= beklemtoond)

  36. Flapping & Stress 2 • Flapping vb. Coasters (1958) sanity, vanity, yakety probleem 1: linker context onbeklemtoond, toch flapping SPE: /t/  / V _ V (V= beklemtoond) ???

  37. Flapping & Stress 3 • Flapping latex probleem 2: linker context wel beklemtoond en geen flapping SPE: /t/  / V _ V (V= beklemtoond) ???

  38. Flapping & Context 1 • Flapping & linker context vb. Stealer’s Wheel (1972), Joan Armatrading (1988) waiting (linker context [j]; wel flapping) shouting (linker context [w]; wel flapping) SPE: /t/  / V _ V linker context kan dus ook glijder zijn: [-consonantisch]

  39. Flapping & Context 2 • Flapping & rechter context vb. Dusty Springfield (1966); Faces (1969) little (rechter context [l]; wel flapping) button (rechter context [n]; wel flapping) SPE: /t/  / V _ V rechter context kan dus ook syllabische /l/ of /n/ zijn: [+syllabic] flapping data

  40. Flapping & Context 3 • Flapping & context nieuwe regel?: SPE: /t/  / [-consonantisch] __ [+syllabisch] nu wel: links vocaal of glijder; rechts vocaal of ander syllabisch segment, maar probleem beklemtoning linker context blijft bestaan (attack; latex; yakety)

  41. Oplossing Kahn (1976) • Alleen ambisyllabische /t/’s kunnen flapping ondergaan. m.a.w. lettergreepstructuur speelt hier doorslaggevende rol. • Hoe gaat dit in zijn werk?

  42. Syllabificatieregels Kahn (1976) 1 • Verplichte syllabificatieregels Kahn (geparafraseerd): • R1: link syllabisch segment met -knoop • R2a: associeer ter linker zijde van een -knoop alle segmenten die samen een maximale onset kunnen vormen in de taal • R2b: associeer alle nu nog niet gelinkte segmenten aan de rechter zijde van een -knoop

  43. Syllabificatieregels Kahn (1976) R1 C O N S C R I P T 1 2

  44. Syllabificatieregels Kahn (1976) R2a C O N S C R I P T 1 2

  45. Syllabificatieregels Kahn (1976) R2a C O N S C R I P T 1 2

  46. Syllabificatieregels Kahn (1976) R2a C O N S C R I P T 1 2

  47. Syllabificatieregels Kahn (1976) R2a C O N S C R I P T 1 2

  48. Syllabificatieregels Kahn (1976) R2a C O N S C R I P T 1 2 * #nscr

  49. Syllabificatieregels Kahn (1976) R2b C O N S C R I P T 1 2

  50. Syllabificatieregels Kahn (1976) R2b C O N S C R I P T 1 2