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Romania. Water Pollution in the Danube Delta and Black Sea Region. Emily Szajna Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe) Professor Zoltan Grossman University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire Spring 2005. Danube Delta. Controlled by Romania & Ukraine Romania: 90%

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Water Pollution in the Danube Delta and Black Sea Region

Emily Szajna

Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe)

Professor Zoltan Grossman

University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire

Spring 2005

danube delta
Danube Delta

Controlled by Romania & Ukraine

Romania: 90%

Danube Delta

Biosphere Reserve

source of the problems
Source of the Problems

Drains lands through 17 Countries

Population: 165 million


Nutrient Flow

Romania is the biggest contributor of

harmful nutrients to the Black Sea

Total nitrogen input :

  • Agriculture: ~44%

2. Industry: 9–10 %

3. Municipal waste

water: 11–12 %


Nutrient Flow (Cont.)

Surface water (1994):

~ 284 – 306 kilo tons nitrogen/year

~ 39 – 40 kilo tons phosphorous/year

Total emissions - Phosphorous:

1. agriculture: ~ 58 %

2. industry: ~ 20.6 %

3. municipal waste

water: ~ 11.4 %

Total Nutrient Emissions


Iron Gate Gorge, Romania

  • Cheap energy generated at two hydropower stations; very
  • difficult to find sources on environmental effects of the dam and
  • hydropower stations

Copyright © 2004 Richard Robinson, Amcan Travel.


Rock Sculpture, Romania

The river is the

key to tourism

& economy in

the area





Copyright © 2004 Richard Robinson, Amcan Travel.

clean up

Black Sea in Bloom


For the cleaning of

polluted water:

* 2,770 cleaning stations have been built

This is a good thing, but with one

major problem!

problems in clean up
Problems in Clean-Up


Of the cleaning stations existing then, only 300 were working

The other 535 had malfunction issues

The malfunctions are caused by the following factors:

1) lack of materials

2) insufficient qualification of the personnel

3) simple negligence

ministry of waters woods and environment protection wants to


Ministry of Waters, Woods and Environment Protection wants to:

1. Reduce pollution by

20% - 1995

Lower Danube Green

Corridor, Bulgaria and


2. Bring it down to European

levels by 2000

3. I was not able to find updated information

on whether these goals have been met, but

funding issues slow down the meeting of

these goals.

funding issues
Funding Issues

As a result of the severe pollution problems, this area is subject to special ecological recovery programs, like the Black Sea Agricultural Control Project I will talk about on the next slide.

Financing is provided by the World Bank and the Romanian Government in accordance with specific management programs.

black sea agricultural control project
Black Sea Agricultural Control Project

Goal: Reduce discharge of nutrients through integrated

land and water management

Combine good agricultural practices and wetland


Better practices include:

crop rotation, conservation tillage

systems, crop cover, and livestock management


Causing Eutrophication:

Definition-too many mineral & organic nutrients that promote, for example,

growth of algae eventually causing reduction in oxygen content

causing the extinction of organisms


Past 25 years:

Enormous increase in nutrient load to the Black Sea

  • Two- to three-fold increase in nitrates
  • Seven-fold increase in phosphates


1. Widespread use of phosphate detergents

2. Intensification of agriculture which uses fertilizers

causing nutrient-leaching from the soil

in recent years

Status (Cont.)

In recent years:

Reductions in activity in some areas of the economy,

but does not necessarily mean things are better for the


Volume of pollutants emitted has diminished

somewhat: Is it enough?

Still represents a risk for the quality of water, air, soil

and health of the population

in conclusion
In Conclusion

Much still needs to be done in cooperation with all the countries that share the Danube River.

Financial concerns in Central European countries

make progress on environmental issues slow, but if

many of these countries, such as Romania, wish to

join the EU – progress to reach the goals that have

been set will have to be made.

  • Romania Geography;
  • Environmental Protection and Scientific Research in Romania;
  • Sofia Convention;
  • Environmental Security Issues in the Black Sea Region;
  • Romania Agricultural Pollution Control Project;
  • Environment and Ecological Action;
  • Central Europe Review;