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Romania. Water Pollution in the Danube Delta and Black Sea Region. Emily Szajna szajnaee@uwec.edu Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe) Professor Zoltan Grossman University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire Spring 2005. Danube Delta. Controlled by Romania & Ukraine Romania: 90%

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    1. Romania Water Pollution in the Danube Delta and Black Sea Region Emily Szajna szajnaee@uwec.edu Geography 308 (Russia and Eastern Europe) Professor Zoltan Grossman University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire Spring 2005

    2. Danube Delta Controlled by Romania & Ukraine Romania: 90% Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ro.html

    3. Source of the Problems Drains lands through 17 Countries Population: 165 million http://www.npr.org/programs/atc/features/2002/danube/

    4. Nutrient Flow Romania is the biggest contributor of harmful nutrients to the Black Sea Total nitrogen input : • Agriculture: ~44% 2. Industry: 9–10 % 3. Municipal waste water: 11–12 %

    5. Nutrient Flow (Cont.) Surface water (1994): ~ 284 – 306 kilo tons nitrogen/year ~ 39 – 40 kilo tons phosphorous/year Total emissions - Phosphorous: 1. agriculture: ~ 58 % 2. industry: ~ 20.6 % 3. municipal waste water: ~ 11.4 % Total Nutrient Emissions

    6. Iron Gate Gorge, Romania • Cheap energy generated at two hydropower stations; very • difficult to find sources on environmental effects of the dam and • hydropower stations Copyright © 2004 Richard Robinson, Amcan Travel. http://www.goamcan.com/photos/dscn_7693.html

    7. Rock Sculpture, Romania The river is the key to tourism & economy in the area Provides additional funding resources Copyright © 2004 Richard Robinson, Amcan Travel. http://www.goamcan.com/photos/dscn_7693.html

    8. Black Sea in Bloom Clean-Up For the cleaning of polluted water: * 2,770 cleaning stations have been built http://www.gesource.ac.uk/worldguide/html/image_551.html This is a good thing, but with one major problem!

    9. Problems in Clean-Up 1997: Of the cleaning stations existing then, only 300 were working The other 535 had malfunction issues The malfunctions are caused by the following factors: 1) lack of materials 2) insufficient qualification of the personnel 3) simple negligence

    10. Solutions Ministry of Waters, Woods and Environment Protection wants to: 1. Reduce pollution by 20% - 1995 http://www.gesource.ac.uk/worldguide/html/image_1882.html Lower Danube Green Corridor, Bulgaria and Romania 2. Bring it down to European levels by 2000 3. I was not able to find updated information on whether these goals have been met, but funding issues slow down the meeting of these goals.

    11. Funding Issues As a result of the severe pollution problems, this area is subject to special ecological recovery programs, like the Black Sea Agricultural Control Project I will talk about on the next slide. Financing is provided by the World Bank and the Romanian Government in accordance with specific management programs. http://www.bnro.ro/En/Ins/

    12. Black Sea Agricultural Control Project Goal: Reduce discharge of nutrients through integrated land and water management Combine good agricultural practices and wetland rehab Better practices include: crop rotation, conservation tillage systems, crop cover, and livestock management system Causing Eutrophication: Definition-too many mineral & organic nutrients that promote, for example, growth of algae eventually causing reduction in oxygen content causing the extinction of organisms

    13. Status Past 25 years: Enormous increase in nutrient load to the Black Sea • Two- to three-fold increase in nitrates • Seven-fold increase in phosphates Causes: 1. Widespread use of phosphate detergents 2. Intensification of agriculture which uses fertilizers causing nutrient-leaching from the soil

    14. Status (Cont.) In recent years: Reductions in activity in some areas of the economy, but does not necessarily mean things are better for the environment Volume of pollutants emitted has diminished somewhat: Is it enough? Still represents a risk for the quality of water, air, soil and health of the population

    15. In Conclusion Much still needs to be done in cooperation with all the countries that share the Danube River. Financial concerns in Central European countries make progress on environmental issues slow, but if many of these countries, such as Romania, wish to join the EU – progress to reach the goals that have been set will have to be made.

    16. References • Romania Geography;http://www.aboutromania.com/geography.html • Environmental Protection and Scientific Research in Romania;http://www.biopolitics.gr/HTML/PUBS/VOL5/html/con_rom.htm • Sofia Convention;http://enrin.grida.no/htmls/romania/soe2000/eng/cap2/conv.htm • Environmental Security Issues in the Black Sea Region;http://www-erd.llnl.gov/library/AR-132297.pdf • Romania Agricultural Pollution Control Project;http://www.gefweb.org/COUNCIL/GEF_C15/GEF_C15_Inf.6Romania.doc • Environment and Ecological Action; http://www.romanianembassy.dk/romania/mediu.html • Central Europe Review; http://www.ce-review.org/99/12/lovatt12.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Sea