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CHAPTER 4. COMPUTERS & INFORMATION PROCESSING

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  1. CHAPTER 4. COMPUTERS & INFORMATION PROCESSING

  2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS • DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED • DESCRIBE STORAGE MEDIA • DESCRIBE INPUT, OUTPUT, PROCESSING, MULTIMEDIA *

  3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • CONTRAST MAINFRAME, MIDRANGE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, SUPER COMPUTERS • COMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORK • COMPARE INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES • ANALYZE TRENDS *

  4. MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES • WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM?: CPU AND PRIMARY STORAGE • SECONDARY STORAGE • INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES • TECHNOLOGY TRENDS *

  5. CPU INPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE OUTPUT DEVICES COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES PRIMARY STORAGE COMPUTER COMPONENTS BUSES

  6. HOW CHARACTERS ARE STORED • BIT:Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not • BYTE:Group of bits for one character • EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte) • ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte) • PARITY BIT:extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors *

  7. C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1 A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0 T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1 Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number * EXAMPLES OF BYTES EBCDIC ASCII (assume even-parity system)

  8. PRIMARY STORAGE CPU OUTPUT DEVICES SECONDARY STORAGE INPUT DEVICES CPU & PRIMARY STORAGE DATA BUS ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS

  9. ARITHMETIC/LOGIC UNIT CLOCK ROM RAM PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) CONTROL UNIT

  10. ALU & CONTROL UNIT • ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT:CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations • CONTROL UNIT:CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system *

  11. INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE I-CYCLE: 1. FETCH 2. DECODE 3. PLACE IN INSTRUCTION REGISTER 4. PLACE INTO ADDRESS REGISTER *

  12. INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE E-CYCLE: 5. SEND DATA FROM MAIN MEMORY TO STORAGE REGISTER 6. COMMAND ALU 7. ALU PERFORMS OPERATION 8. SEND RESULT TO ACCUMULATOR *

  13. COMPUTER TIME Millisecond.001 second thousand15min 40 sec Microsecond.001 millisecond million 11.6 days Nanosecond .001microsecond billion31.7 years Picosecond.001 nanosecond trillion31,700 years * # PER COMPARED NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND

  14. TYPES OF MEMORY • RAM:Random Access Memory • Dynamic: Changes thru processing • Static: Remains constant (power on) • ROM:Read Only Memory (preprogrammed) • PROM: Program can be changed once • EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light • EEPROM: Electrically erasable *

  15. 101 102 103 201 202 203 301 302 303 ADDRESSES IN MEMORY Each location has an ADDRESS Each location can hold one BYTE

  16. MEMORY SIZE • KILOBYTE (KT): 210 bytes... 1024 bytes • MEGABYTE (MB): 210 KB... “million” bytes • GIGABYTE (GB): 210 MB... “billion” bytes • TERABYTE (TB): 210 GB... “trillion” bytes *

  17. MICROPROCESSOR VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU • WORD LENGTH:bits processed at one time • MEGAHERTZ:one million cycles per second • DATA BUS WIDTH:bits moved between CPU & other devices • REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC):embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed • MultiMedia eXtension (MMX):enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications *

  18. NAME MICROPROCESSOR WORD DATA BUS CLOCK SPEED MANUFACTURER LENGTH WIDTH (MHz) PENTIUM INTEL 32 64 75 - 200 PENTIUM (MMX) INTEL 32 64 166 - 233 PENTIUM II INTEL 32 64 233 - 450 PENTIUM III INTEL 64 64 500+ PowerPC MOTOROLA, IBM, APPLE 32 64 100 - 400 ALPHA DEC 64 64 1000+ EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSORS

  19. PENTIUM PCs PENTIUM II HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS PENTIUM (MMX) MULTIMEDIA PENTIUM III MULTIMEDIA PowerPC HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS ALPHA COMPAC & DEC WORKSTATIONS USES OF MICROPROCESSORS NAME USE

  20. Program Program TASK 1 RESULT CPU CPU CPU CPU TASK 1 TASK 2 TASK 3 RESULT Program TASK 2 RESULT CPU SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL

  21. SECONDARY STORAGE • DISK • TAPE • OPTICAL STORAGE *

  22. DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE • HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems • RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks • FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC *

  23. DISK 1 DISK 2 DISK 3 DISK 4 DISK 5 READ/WRITE HEADS CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK) DISK PACK STORAGE • LARGE SYSTEMS • RELIABLE STORAGE • LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA • QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE • TYPICAL: 11 2-sided disks • CYLINDER: Same track all surfaces *

  24. TRACKS START OF TRACKS DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0 TRACKS AND SECTORS EACH TRACK HOLDS SAME AMOUNT OF DATA SECTOR

  25. OPTICAL STORAGE • CD-ROM:500-660 MEGABYTES • LAND: flat parts of disk surface reflects light • PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light • WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM): • CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable • CD-RW: CD - Rewritable • DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD):CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data *

  26. MAGNETIC TAPE • STANDARD FOR SEQUENTIAL FILES • SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool) • RECORD GROUPS:BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block) • GROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAP • RECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIME * HEADER IBG BLOCK 1 BLOCK 2 BLOCK 3

  27. MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE • ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE • USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS • INEXPENSIVE • STORED IN SAFE LOCATION • CAN BE REUSED *

  28. STORAGE AREA NETWORK (SAN) • HIGH-SPEED NETWORK • CONNECTS VARIOUS STORAGE DEVICES • TAPE LIBRARIES • DISK ARRAYS *

  29. INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES • POINTING DEVICES • SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION • OUTPUT DEVICES *

  30. POINTING DEVICES • KEYBOARD • MOUSE • WIRED • INFRA-RED • TRACKBALL • TOUCH PAD • JOYSTICK • TOUCH SCREEN *

  31. SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION • OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR):saves characters, format • BAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments • MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR):special ink identifies bank, account, amount *

  32. SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION • PEN-BASED INPUT:Digitizes signature • DIGITAL SCANNER: Translates images & characters into digital form • VOICE INPUT DEVICES:Converts spoken word into digital form • SENSORS: Devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges) *

  33. OUTPUT DEVICES • CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) • PRINTER • PLOTTER • VOICE OUTPUT DEVICE • MULTIMEDIA *

  34. DATA PROCESSING • BATCH PROCESSING:Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions. • ON-LINE PROCESSING:Transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices. *

  35. KEYBOARD INPUT BATCH OF TRANSACTIONS SORTED TRANSACTION FILE OLD MASTER FILE VALIDATE AND UPDATE NEW MASTER FILE ERROR REPORTS REPORTS BATCH PROCESSING

  36. TRANSACTIONS PROCESS / UPDATE MASTER FILE MASTER FILE KEYBOARD IMMEDIATE INPUT IMMEDIATE PROCESSING IMMEDIATE FILE UPDATE ON-LINE PROCESSING

  37. INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA • INTEGRATES TWO OR MORE MEDIA • TEXT, GRAPHICS, SOUND, VOICE, VIDEO, ANIMATION • STREAMING TECHNOLOGY • MP3: Audio compression standard *

  38. CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS • MAINFRAME • MIDRANGE & MINICOMPUTER • SERVER • PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC) • WORKSTATION • SUPERCOMPUTER *

  39. MAINFRAME MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second • LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER • 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM • COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS • MASSIVE DATA • COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS *

  40. MIDRANGE/MINICOMPUTER • MIDDLE-RANGE • 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM • UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS • USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME *

  41. MICROCOMPUTER • DESKTOP OR PORTABLE • 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM • PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS • AFFORDABLE • MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS • CAN BE NETWORKED *

  42. CLIENT / SERVER • NETWORKED COMPUTERS • CLIENT:user (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not have • SERVER:component (computer) having desired data, application, communications *

  43. REQUESTS DATA, SERVICE CLIENT / SERVER CLIENT SERVER USER INTERFACE APPLICATION FUNCTION DATA APPLICATION FUNCTION NETWORK RESOURCES

  44. WORKSTATION • DESKTOP COMPUTER • POWERFUL GRAPHICS • EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES • MULTI-TASKING • USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION (e.g.; CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS) *

  45. SUPERCOMPUTERTERAFLOP:TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND • HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED • COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS • FASTEST CPUs • LARGE SIMULATIONS • STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS • EXPENSIVE *

  46. CENTRALIZED / DISTRIBUTED • CENTRALIZED:PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE • ONE STANDARD • GREATER CONTROL • DISTRIBUTED:PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKS • MORE FLEXIBILITY • FASTER RESPONSE *

  47. DOWNSIZING TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FROM LARGE COMPUTERS TO SMALL • REDUCES COST • SPEEDS RESULTS TO USER • COMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BEST • COOPERATIVE PROCESSING *

  48. NETWORK COMPUTERS • NETWORK COMPUTER:simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server) • TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO):total cost of owning technology resources (hardware, software, upgrades, maintenance, technical support, training) *

  49. TECHNOLOGY TRENDS • INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA • VIRTUAL REALITY • ENHANCED WORLD WIDE WEB • SUPERCHIPS • FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS • MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTERS • SMART CARDS • MICROMINIATURIZATION *

  50. © 2001 Laudon & Laudon, Essentials of Management Information Systems 4/e Connect to the INTERNET Laudon/Laudon Web site: http://www.prenhall.com/laudon Additional Internet Resources related to this chapter: http://www.intel.com http://www.dell.com http://www.apple.com http://www.ibm.com http://www.sun.com http://www.cisco.com http://www.motorola.com