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CHAPTER 4. COMPUTERS & INFORMATION PROCESSING LEARNING OBJECTIVES IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED DESCRIBE STORAGE MEDIA DESCRIBE INPUT, OUTPUT, PROCESSING, MULTIMEDIA * LEARNING OBJECTIVES CONTRAST MAINFRAME, MIDRANGE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, SUPER COMPUTERS

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learning objectives
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • IDENTIFY HARDWARE COMPONENTS
  • DESCRIBE HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED
  • DESCRIBE STORAGE MEDIA
  • DESCRIBE INPUT, OUTPUT, PROCESSING, MULTIMEDIA

*

learning objectives3
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • CONTRAST MAINFRAME, MIDRANGE, PERSONAL COMPUTERS, SUPER COMPUTERS
  • COMPARE ARRANGEMENTS OF COMPUTER PROCESSING: CLIENT/SERVER, NETWORK
  • COMPARE INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES
  • ANALYZE TRENDS

*

management challenges
MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
  • WHAT IS A COMPUTER SYSTEM?: CPU AND PRIMARY STORAGE
  • SECONDARY STORAGE
  • INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES
  • TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

*

computer components

CPU

INPUT DEVICES

SECONDARY STORAGE

OUTPUT DEVICES

COMMUNICATIONS DEVICES

PRIMARY STORAGE

COMPUTER COMPONENTS

BUSES

how characters are stored
HOW CHARACTERS ARE STORED
  • BIT:Binary Digit. On/Off, 0/1, Magnetic/Not
  • BYTE:Group of bits for one character
    • EBCDIC- Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (8 bits per byte)
    • ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Exchange (7 or 8 bits per byte)
  • PARITY BIT:extra bit added to each byte to help detect errors

*

examples of bytes
C: 1100 0011 0 100 0011 1

A: 1100 0001 1 100 0001 0

T: 1110 0011 1 101 0100 1

Note how sum for each byte is an EVEN number

*

EXAMPLES OF BYTES

EBCDIC ASCII

(assume even-parity system)

cpu primary storage

PRIMARY

STORAGE

CPU

OUTPUT

DEVICES

SECONDARY

STORAGE

INPUT

DEVICES

CPU & PRIMARY STORAGE

DATA BUS

ADDRESS BUS

CONTROL BUS

central processing unit cpu

ARITHMETIC/LOGIC

UNIT

CLOCK

ROM

RAM

PRIMARY (MAIN) MEMORY

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)

CONTROL UNIT

alu control unit
ALU & CONTROL UNIT
  • ARITHMETIC- LOGIC UNIT:CPU component performs logic and arithmetic operations
  • CONTROL UNIT:CPU component controls, coordinates other parts of computer system

*

instruction execution cycle
INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE

I-CYCLE:

1. FETCH

2. DECODE

3. PLACE IN INSTRUCTION REGISTER

4. PLACE INTO ADDRESS REGISTER

*

instruction execution cycle12
INSTRUCTION & EXECUTION CYCLE

E-CYCLE:

5. SEND DATA FROM MAIN MEMORY TO STORAGE REGISTER

6. COMMAND ALU

7. ALU PERFORMS OPERATION

8. SEND RESULT TO ACCUMULATOR

*

computer time
COMPUTER TIME

Millisecond.001 second thousand15min 40 sec

Microsecond.001 millisecond million 11.6 days

Nanosecond .001microsecond billion31.7 years

Picosecond.001 nanosecond trillion31,700 years

*

# PER COMPARED

NAME LENGTH SECOND TO 1 SECOND

types of memory
TYPES OF MEMORY
  • RAM:Random Access Memory
    • Dynamic: Changes thru processing
    • Static: Remains constant (power on)
  • ROM:Read Only Memory (preprogrammed)
    • PROM: Program can be changed once
    • EPROM: Erasable thru ultraviolet light
    • EEPROM: Electrically erasable

*

addresses in memory

101

102

103

201

202

203

301

302

303

ADDRESSES IN MEMORY

Each location has an ADDRESS

Each location can hold one BYTE

memory size
MEMORY SIZE
  • KILOBYTE (KT): 210 bytes... 1024 bytes
  • MEGABYTE (MB): 210 KB... “million” bytes
  • GIGABYTE (GB): 210 MB... “billion” bytes
  • TERABYTE (TB): 210 GB... “trillion” bytes

*

microprocessor
MICROPROCESSOR

VLSI CIRCUIT WITH CPU

  • WORD LENGTH:bits processed at one time
  • MEGAHERTZ:one million cycles per second
  • DATA BUS WIDTH:bits moved between CPU & other devices
  • REDUCED INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTING (RISC):embeds most used instructions on chip to enhance speed
  • MultiMedia eXtension (MMX):enhanced Intel chip improves multimedia applications

*

examples of microprocessors

NAME

MICROPROCESSOR

WORD

DATA BUS

CLOCK SPEED

MANUFACTURER

LENGTH

WIDTH

(MHz)

PENTIUM

INTEL

32

64

75 - 200

PENTIUM (MMX)

INTEL

32

64

166 - 233

PENTIUM II

INTEL

32

64

233 - 450

PENTIUM III

INTEL

64

64

500+

PowerPC

MOTOROLA, IBM, APPLE

32

64

100 - 400

ALPHA

DEC

64

64

1000+

EXAMPLES OF MICROPROCESSORS
uses of microprocessors

PENTIUM

PCs

PENTIUM II

HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS

PENTIUM (MMX)

MULTIMEDIA

PENTIUM III

MULTIMEDIA

PowerPC

HIGH-END PCs, WORKSTATIONS

ALPHA

COMPAC & DEC WORKSTATIONS

USES OF MICROPROCESSORS

NAME

USE

sequential parallel processing

Program

Program

TASK 1

RESULT

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

TASK 1

TASK 2

TASK 3

RESULT

Program

TASK 2

RESULT

CPU

SEQUENTIAL & PARALLEL PROCESSING

SEQUENTIAL PARALLEL

slide21

SECONDARY STORAGE

  • DISK
  • TAPE
  • OPTICAL STORAGE

*

direct access storage device
DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE
  • HARD DISK: Steel platter array for large computer systems
  • RAID: Redundant array of Inexpensive Disks
  • FLOPPY DISK: Removable disk for PC

*

disk pack storage

DISK 1

DISK 2

DISK 3

DISK 4

DISK 5

READ/WRITE

HEADS

CYLINDER 10: TRACK 10 (TOP AND BOTTOM OF EACH DISK)

DISK PACK STORAGE
  • LARGE SYSTEMS
  • RELIABLE STORAGE
  • LARGE AMOUNTS OF DATA
  • QUICK ACCESS & RETRIEVABLE
  • TYPICAL: 11 2-sided disks
  • CYLINDER: Same track all surfaces

*

slide24

TRACKS

START

OF

TRACKS

DIRECTORY ON TRACK 0

TRACKS AND SECTORS

EACH TRACK HOLDS

SAME AMOUNT OF DATA

SECTOR

slide25

OPTICAL STORAGE

  • CD-ROM:500-660 MEGABYTES
    • LAND: flat parts of disk surface reflects light
    • PITS: small scratch on surface scatters light
  • WRITE ONCE / READ MANY (WORM):
    • CD-R: Compact Disk - Recordable
    • CD-RW: CD - Rewritable
  • DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD):CD size, up to 10 gigabytes of data

*

slide26

MAGNETIC TAPE

  • STANDARD FOR SEQUENTIAL FILES
  • SPOOL OF PLASTIC TAPE COVERED WITH FERROUS OXIDE (2400 feet per spool)
  • RECORD GROUPS:BLOCKING FACTOR (e.g., 10 records per block)
  • GROUPS SEPARATED BY INTER-BLOCK GAP
  • RECORDS READ BLOCK AT A TIME

*

HEADER IBG BLOCK 1 BLOCK 2 BLOCK 3

slide27

MAGNETIC CARTRIDGE

  • ENCLOSED FERROUS OXIDE TAPE
  • USED PERIODICALLY TO BACK UP RECORDS
  • INEXPENSIVE
  • STORED IN SAFE LOCATION
  • CAN BE REUSED

*

storage area network san
STORAGE AREA NETWORK (SAN)
  • HIGH-SPEED NETWORK
  • CONNECTS VARIOUS STORAGE DEVICES
    • TAPE LIBRARIES
    • DISK ARRAYS

*

input output devices
INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES
  • POINTING DEVICES
  • SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION
  • OUTPUT DEVICES

*

pointing devices
POINTING DEVICES
  • KEYBOARD
  • MOUSE
    • WIRED
    • INFRA-RED
    • TRACKBALL
    • TOUCH PAD
  • JOYSTICK
  • TOUCH SCREEN

*

source data automation
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION

CAPTURES DATA IN COMPUTER FORM AT TIME & PLACE OF TRANSACTION

  • OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR):saves characters, format
  • BAR CODE: identifies products in stores, warehouses, shipments
  • MAGNETIC INK CHARACTER RECOGNITION (MICR):special ink identifies bank, account, amount

*

source data automation32
SOURCE DATA AUTOMATION
  • PEN-BASED INPUT:Digitizes signature
  • DIGITAL SCANNER: Translates images & characters into digital form
  • VOICE INPUT DEVICES:Converts spoken word into digital form
  • SENSORS: Devices that collect data from environment for computer input (e.g., thermometers, pressure gauges)

*

output devices
OUTPUT DEVICES
  • CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)
  • PRINTER
  • PLOTTER
  • VOICE OUTPUT DEVICE
  • MULTIMEDIA

*

data processing
DATA PROCESSING
  • BATCH PROCESSING:Transaction data stored until convenient to process as a group. Useful for less time-sensitive actions.
  • ON-LINE PROCESSING:Transaction data entered directly into system, constantly updating files. Requires direct-access devices.

*

batch processing

KEYBOARD INPUT

BATCH OF TRANSACTIONS

SORTED TRANSACTION FILE

OLD MASTER FILE

VALIDATE AND UPDATE

NEW MASTER FILE

ERROR REPORTS

REPORTS

BATCH PROCESSING
on line processing

TRANSACTIONS

PROCESS / UPDATE MASTER FILE

MASTER FILE

KEYBOARD

IMMEDIATE INPUT

IMMEDIATE PROCESSING

IMMEDIATE FILE UPDATE

ON-LINE PROCESSING
interactive multimedia
INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA
  • INTEGRATES TWO OR MORE MEDIA
  • TEXT, GRAPHICS, SOUND, VOICE, VIDEO, ANIMATION
  • STREAMING TECHNOLOGY
  • MP3: Audio compression standard

*

categories of computers
CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS
  • MAINFRAME
  • MIDRANGE & MINICOMPUTER
  • SERVER
  • PERSONAL COMPUTER (PC)
  • WORKSTATION
  • SUPERCOMPUTER

*

mainframe
MAINFRAME

MIPS: Millions of Instructions per second

  • LARGEST ENTERPRISE COMPUTER
  • 5O MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM
  • COMMERCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, MILITARY APPLICATIONS
  • MASSIVE DATA
  • COMPLICATED COMPUTATIONS

*

midrange minicomputer
MIDRANGE/MINICOMPUTER
  • MIDDLE-RANGE
  • 10 MEGABYTES TO OVER ONE GIGABYTE RAM
  • UNIVERSITIES, FACTORIES, LABS
  • USED AS FRONT-END PROCESSOR FOR MAINFRAME

*

microcomputer
MICROCOMPUTER
  • DESKTOP OR PORTABLE
  • 64 KILOBYTES TO OVER 128 MEGABYTES RAM
  • PERSONAL OR BUSINESS COMPUTERS
  • AFFORDABLE
  • MANY AVAILABLE COMPONENTS
  • CAN BE NETWORKED

*

client server
CLIENT / SERVER
  • NETWORKED COMPUTERS
  • CLIENT:user (PC, workstation, laptop) requires data, application, communications it does not have
  • SERVER:component (computer) having desired data, application, communications

*

client server43

REQUESTS

DATA, SERVICE

CLIENT / SERVER

CLIENT SERVER

USER INTERFACE

APPLICATION

FUNCTION

DATA

APPLICATION FUNCTION

NETWORK RESOURCES

workstation
WORKSTATION
  • DESKTOP COMPUTER
  • POWERFUL GRAPHICS
  • EXTENSIVE MATH CAPABILITIES
  • MULTI-TASKING
  • USUALLY CONFIGURED TO SPECIAL FUNCTION (e.g.; CAD, ENGINEERING, GRAPHICS)

*

supercomputer teraflop trillion calculations second
SUPERCOMPUTERTERAFLOP:TRILLION CALCULATIONS/SECOND
  • HIGHLY SOPHISTICATED
  • COMPLEX COMPUTATIONS
  • FASTEST CPUs
  • LARGE SIMULATIONS
  • STATE-OF-THE-ART COMPONENTS
  • EXPENSIVE

*

centralized distributed
CENTRALIZED / DISTRIBUTED
  • CENTRALIZED:PROCESSING BY CENTRAL COMPUTER SITE
    • ONE STANDARD
    • GREATER CONTROL
  • DISTRIBUTED:PROCESSING BY SEVERAL COMPUTER SITES LINKED BY NETWORKS
    • MORE FLEXIBILITY
    • FASTER RESPONSE

*

downsizing
DOWNSIZING

TRANSFER APPLICATIONS FROM LARGE COMPUTERS TO SMALL

  • REDUCES COST
  • SPEEDS RESULTS TO USER
  • COMPUTER ASSIGNED TASK IT DOES BEST
  • COOPERATIVE PROCESSING

*

network computers
NETWORK COMPUTERS
  • NETWORK COMPUTER:simplified desktop computer stores minimum data to function (uses server)
  • TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO):total cost of owning technology resources (hardware, software, upgrades, maintenance, technical support, training)

*

technology trends
TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
  • INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA
  • VIRTUAL REALITY
  • ENHANCED WORLD WIDE WEB
  • SUPERCHIPS
  • FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTERS
  • MASSIVELY PARALLEL COMPUTERS
  • SMART CARDS
  • MICROMINIATURIZATION

*

connect to the internet

© 2001 Laudon & Laudon, Essentials of Management Information Systems 4/e

Connect to the INTERNET

Laudon/Laudon Web site:

http://www.prenhall.com/laudon

Additional Internet Resources related to this chapter:

http://www.intel.com

http://www.dell.com

http://www.apple.com

http://www.ibm.com

http://www.sun.com

http://www.cisco.com

http://www.motorola.com