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Kenneth L. Pike. Phonemics. Phonemes / / Abstract contrastive units in a language Never pronounced Realized by one or more allophones Allophone [ ] Sound units that are a physical reality Always pronounced Variation of a phoneme. Two possibilities. Allophones of separate phonemes

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Phonemics
Phonemics

  • Phonemes / /

    • Abstract contrastive units in a language

    • Never pronounced

    • Realized by one or more allophones

  • Allophone [ ]

    • Sound units that are a physical reality

    • Always pronounced

    • Variation of a phoneme


Two possibilities
Two possibilities

  • Allophones of separate phonemes

    /t/ /th/

    [t] [th]

  • Allophones of the same phoneme

    /t/

    [t] [th]


Allophones of separate phonemes
Allophones of separate phonemes

  • Proof

    • Minimal pair

      • “sip” and “zip”

        /s/ /z/

        [s] [z]


Allophones of separate phonemes1
Allophones of separate phonemes

  • Are [h] and [?] allophones of separate phonemes?

    [kahon] “box” [?umagos] “to flow”

    [humagos] “to paint” [ka?on] “to fetch”

  • YES

    /h/ /?/

    [h] [?]


Allophones of separate phonemes2
Allophones of separate phonemes

  • Are [p] and [b] allophones of separate phonemes?

    [peso] “(monetary unit)” [beso] “kiss”

    [kompa] “mate” [komba] “skipping”

  • YES

    /p/ /b/

    [p] [b]


Allophones of the same phoneme
Allophones of the same phoneme

  • Proof

    • Complementary distribution

      • The allophones never occur in the same environment

        /the man/

        [bus driver] [security guard]


Allophones of the same phoneme1
Allophones of the same phoneme

  • Are [t] and [th] allophones of the same phoneme in English?

  • YES

    /t/

    [t] [th]

  • But what about in Hindi?


T and t h in hindi
[t] and [th] in Hindi

[tal] “beat”

[thal] “plate”

  • Allophones of separate phonemes

    /t/ /th/

    [t] [th]


Different mappings
Different mappings

  • English

    /t/

    [t] [th]

  • Hindi

    /t/ /th/

    [t] [th]


How to do phonemic analysis
How to do phonemic analysis

  • Examine your data

    • The question will ask about certain sounds; pay special attention to those sounds. Don’t get confused by extra data. Pronounce each item.

  • Look for minimal pairs involving those sounds

    • If you find one, you can conclude that the sounds are allophones of separate phonemes

  • If there are no minimal pairs, list the environments in which each sound occurs

    • If they never occur in the same environment, you can conclude that they are allophones of the same phoneme


Greek
Greek

  • Are [k] and [x] allophones of the same phoneme or allophones of separate phonemes?

    [kano] “do” [kori] “daughter”

    [xori] “dances” [xrima] “money”

    [xano] “lose” [xufta] “handful”

    [krima] “shame” [kufeta] “bonbons”

    [ceri] “candle” [kali] “charms”


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • [k] and [x] are allophones of separate phonemes

    /k/ /x/

    [k] [k]


Sango
Sango

  • Are [r] and [l] allophones of the same phoneme or allophones of separate phonemes?

    [tere] “body” [kiri] “return”

    [wali] “woman” [wara] “like”

    [koli] “man” [nila] “then”

    [gere] “leg” [doli] “elephant”


List the environments
List the environments

[r] [l]

e___e a___i

e___e o___i

i___i o___i

a___a i___a


Conclusion1
Conclusion

  • [r] and [l] are allophones of the same phoneme

    /l/

    [r] [l]


Other considerations
Other considerations

  • Suspicious pairs

    • Consider only “suspicious” pairs that have some features in common

  • Free variation

    • Common in all languages




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