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Direct Payments & other mechanisms for ecosystem Conservation The Tanzania Land Conservation Trust in the Maasai Steppe The Wildlife Conservation lease program in Kitengela Masai Steppe Tarangire-Manyara system

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direct payments other mechanisms for ecosystem conservation

Direct Payments & other mechanisms for ecosystemConservation

The Tanzania Land Conservation Trust in the Maasai Steppe The Wildlife Conservation lease program in Kitengela

masai steppe tarangire manyara system
Masai SteppeTarangire-Manyara system
  • AWF’s Heartland approach -- focuses on large landscapes of significant wildlife value across Africa.
  • Tarangire Manyara one such HL
  • Comprises
    • Tarangire Nat. Park – 2,600 sq. km
    • L. Manyara Nat. park – 330sq. km
    • Dispersal areas --- Simanjiro, and corridors that link these 2 protected areas
    • Conservation targets for the landscape
the tanzania land conservation trust
The Tanzania Land Conservation Trust
  • Registered in July 2000, aims to provide an alternative mechanism for conserving critical conservation land in Tanzania.
  • to benefit conservation and local communities who live with wildlife adjacent to its lands.
    • Has a board of 8 Trustees
    • Its Trust deed provides for steering committee in each land that is acquired by the Trust
    • Has acquired the first piece of land the Manyara Ranch
why manyara
Why Manyara?
  • Is an important land unit between L. Manyara and Tarangire National Parks.
  • Provides corridor space for elephant, wildebeest and zebra, is home to populations of eland, oryx, greater and lesser Kudu, warthog, leopard, impala, giraffe and is rich in bird life.
acquisition of manyara
Acquisition of Manyara
  • Government of Tanzania wanted to privatise all livestock ranches owned by the Narco including Manyara
  • Group formed to Lobby against privatisation.
  • TLCT proposed as an alternative mechanism combining community access to particular resources as well as a revenue share from ranching and other conservation activities.
  • Ranch turned over to the Tanzania Land Conservation Trust (TLCT) through Presidential order
activities proposed in the manyara ranch
Activities proposed in the Manyara Ranch
  • AWF working with the land Trust to :
    • Develop tourism in the ranch to generate income
    • Define areas of access by local communities – e.g. grass banks proposed for dry season use under conditions to be determined, and water.
    • Development of a livestock improvement program for neighbouring pastoral communities
challenges of the tlct
Challenges of the TLCT
  • New institution
    • No funding of its own. Secretariat and project implementation current supported by AWF
    • Capacity of the board still weak
  • Sustainability issues
    • Will it continue to espouse conservation & communities benefits as its key focus
    • Model untested in TZ
the case for kitengela
The case for Kitengela
  • The Kitengela is a part of the Athi-Kapiti ecosystem which comprises Nairobi National Park, the Kitengela and individually owned lands.
  • The ecosystem is approx. 2,500 sq. km.
  • The Nairobi park is only 114 sq. km
  • Kitengela is located south of the park and Nairobi City and serves as migratory corridor and dispersal area for wildlife.
slide10

Wildlife/Livestock Movement within the Athi-Kapiti

Dry Season

Wet season

Cattle

Wildebeest

Wet season

Dry Season

Zebra

slide11

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Land-Use Changes within Athi-Kapiti

1984

1990

2000

threats to the system
Threats to the system
  • Growing human population numbers and settlement
  • Crop farming
  • Fencing and quarrying along the areas previously used for dispersal and as migration corridors
  • Changing land use – especially rapid since the early 90’s when the EPZ was developed in the Kitengela
impacts on the wildlife system
Impacts on the wildlife system
  • Blockage and or disruption of important migration routes
  • Habitat fragmentation and declining access to critical resources for WL in the ecosystem
  • Declining numbers of wildlife,
  • Increasing conflicts arising from these and other changes in the ecosystem
the kitengela lease program
The Kitengela Lease Program
  • Aims to provide a financial incentive to encourage land owners south of the park to allow wildlife unrestricted access to their land.
  • Started in April 2000, initially with 214 acres, in 2001 grew to 2,708 and in April 2002 was at 7,000 acres. 14,000 acres are wait listed
  • Landowners are paid US$ 4 per acre per year – a figure close to the income individuals make from rearing livestock
  • Payments made in 3 installments during the year
challenges to the program
Challenges to the program
  • Rampant land sales
  • Value of lease in comparison to land sales.
  • Lack of other programs to supplement lease incomes
  • Absence of a strong institutional mechanism to:
    • Hold leases on a long term basis, enforce the terms of the lease as program grows
  • Insufficient funds to endow the program
slide17
Work on TLCT by AWF’s Tanzania Program
  • The Kitengela work by Helen Gichohi with support from Wildlife Conservation Society & David Nkedianye of Friends of Nairobi National Park.