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Airstream mechanisms and phonation types. Outline. Airstream mechanisms – general overview Pulmonic AM Glottalic AM Velaric AM Phonation types Voicelessnes Whisper Breathiness Voice Creak Voice onset time. A irstream mechanisms : General classification.

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Presentation Transcript
outline
Outline
  • Airstreammechanisms – general overview
  • Pulmonic AM
  • Glottalic AM
  • Velaric AM
  • Phonation types
  • Voicelessnes
  • Whisper
  • Breathiness
  • Voice
  • Creak
  • Voiceonset time
pulmonic lung am 1
Pulmonic (lung) AM (1)

Pulmonic egressive AM

  • basic to speech production
  • standard AM (e.g. English, Spanish, Polish, Indonesian, Chinese)
  • the sole AM

Pulmonic ingressive AM

  • [ja] inNorwegian and Danish – sympathy, agreementorcommiseration
  • [nei] – surprise (Norwegian and Danish), sympathy (Danish)
  • Pulmonic ingressive AM
  • possible
  • isn’tused for systematically for distinctivephonologicalpurposes
  • paralinguisticuses (Western cultures)
pulmonic lung am 2
Pulmonic (lung) AM (2)
  • Pulmonic egressive AM
  • generator of the airstream – the respiratory system
    • inspiration – active
    • expiration – passive*
  • easier to control
  • less overall articulatory effort
pulmonic lung am 3
Pulmonic (lung) AM (3)

Differentactivity of the respiratory system:

  • breathing
    • about 12 inspirations and expirations per minute
    • expirationphaseonlyslightlylonger
    • inspiration – muscular action (activeprocess)
    • expiration – mechanical and elasticrecoilforce (passiveprocess)
  • speech
    • expirationphase much longer
    • expiration – a controlledprocesswithco-activation of the inspiratory and expiratorymuscles
glottalic am 1
Glottalic AM (1)
  • glottis (larynx) – initiator of an airstream
  • glottis closed – the air in the lungsblockedoff
  • movement of the larynxin the pharynx
    • controlled by elevator and depressorlaryngealmuscles
    • upward – egressive AM – ejectives
    • downward – ingressive AM – implosives
glottalic am 2
Glottalic AM (2)

Ejectives

  • stops, fricatives and affricates
  • precedeorfollowsoundsusing pulmonic AM

Pronunciation of a glottalic egressive velar stop [k’]:

glottalic am 3
Glottalic AM (3)

Ejectivesarefoundinlanguages of:

  • Africa (Hausa),
  • North (Lakhota, Navajo), Central (Quicheanlanguage of Guatemala) and SouthAm,
  • Asia (mainlyin the Caucasusarea: Georgian and Circassian)
  • Soundexamples: http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html
glottalic am 4
Glottalic AM (4)

Implosives

  • incompleteclosure of the glottis – voicing
  • voicelessimplosives – extremelyrare
  • onlystops
  • languages: African (Zulu, Hausa, Margi), Asian (Sindhi), American (Maidu)
glottalic am 5
Glottalic AM (5)

Soundexamples – go to http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html

Pronunciation of a glottalicbilabialimplosive [б]:

velaric am 1
Velaric AM (1)
  • oralcavity
  • 2 closures– double articulation:
    • the back of the tongue – velum
    • anteriorclosure – the lips, the tip, blade or front of the tongue
  • onlyingressive airflow
  • cliks– stops and affricates
  • phonologicaldistinctions – ratheruncommon(Africanlanguages of Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Tanzania)
  • paralinguisticuses of cliks: tsk, tsksignallingimpatienceorexasperation
velaric am 2
Velaric AM (2)

Pronunciation of a velaringressivevoicelessdental [k]:

Soundexamples – go to http://www.paulmeier.com/ipa/nonpulmonics.html

phonation types
Phonation types
  • Phonation:
    • vocal foldvibration
    • any state of the glottis
  • Phonationmodes:
    • voicelessness
    • whisper
    • breathiness (breathyvoice, murmur)
    • voice
    • creak (creakyvoice, laryngelization)
voicelessness
Voicelessness
  • absence of anyphonation
  • widelyorfullyopened glottis (60-95% of the maximumpossibleglottalarea) – a non-turbulent airflow
whisper
Whisper
  • greaterconstriction of the glottis (>25% of the possibleglottalarea)
  • adduction of the vocal folds, an openingbetween the arytenoidcartilages
  • characteristicflowratesabout 25-30 cc/s
  • linguisticuses – rare
  • paralinguisticuses – signalssecrecyorconfidentiality
  • onlyvoicedsounds can be whispered
breathiness murmur
Breathiness (murmur)
  • vocal foldsarepulledapart + continuousturbulent airflow (vibration)
  • incompleteglottalclosure, the arytenoidcartilagesslightlyapart
  • characteristicflowratesabove 200-300 cc/s
  • systematicdistinctions e.g. Hindi, Urdu (contrastbh-b, gh-g), Tamang (voicedvs. breathyvowels)
  • English: [h] betweenvowels (ahead, behind), voicequality, laryngealdisorders
voice
Voice
  • normal vocal foldvibrationalong the length of the glottis
  • a number of subtypesinbetweenbreathy and creakyvoice
  • variationinvoicequality (fromdarkormellow to brightorsharpvoicequality)
  • voicing – normal for vowels, nasal and lateralconsonants
creaky voice laryngelization
Creakyvoice (laryngelization)
  • lowfrequencyvibration of the vocal cords
  • irregular and short period of the opening of the glottis
  • the vibrationoccursin the anterior part
  • flowrate of 12-20 cc/s
creaky voice 2
Creakyvoice (2)
  • phonologicaldistinction:
    • betweenvoicedvs. creakyconsonants: West Africanlanguages (Hausa, Bura, Margi)
    • between „normally” voicedvs. creakyvowels: Ateso (Kenia), Lango (Uganda, Sudan)
  • inEnglish, Polish:
    • inutteranceswithfallingintonationin the end
    • feature of a speaker oreffect of a speakingdisorder
voice onset time 1
Voiceonset time (1)
  • refers to the start of the phonationrelative to the release of the closure
  • mainlyrelevant to stops

Stops (betweenvowels) distinguished by VOT (adaptedfrom P. Ladefoged, A course inphonetics)

voice onset time 2
Voiceonset time (2)
  • VOT is a secondaryfactorin e.g. English, German
    • [p], [t], [k] : wordinitial, before a vowel, stressed – aspirated(identification of voicelessness)
    • wordinitial [b], [d], [g] – partiallyvoiced
    • inPolish, French, Dutch – onlyvoicelessvs. voiced
  • Primaryfactor – phonologicaldistinctionsin:
    • Thai, Burmese: voicelessaspirated, voicelessunaspirated and voiced
    • Hindi: voicelessaspirated, voicelessunaspirated, voiced and breathyvoiced