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Wireless ATM M iae Woo Outline Background Concept of WATM Reference model, Protocol Stack of WATM WATM Development Scenarios Research Projects for WATM WATM MAC WATM LM Background Information Super Highway Access to all types of information and media Based on ATM/B-ISDN Technology

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wireless atm

Wireless ATM

Miae Woo

outline
Outline
  • Background
  • Concept of WATM
  • Reference model, Protocol Stack of WATM
  • WATM Development Scenarios
  • Research Projects for WATM
  • WATM MAC
  • WATM LM
background
Background
  • Information Super Highway
    • Access to all types of information and media
    • Based on ATM/B-ISDN Technology
  • Rapid increase of mobile telecom. service
    • Full capacity of the second generation mobile systems
    • New solution with more capacity and better performance
  • Compatibility with the fixed telecom. infra structure
    • Cost-effectiveness
atm basic principle
ATM - basic principle
    • favored by the telecommunication industry for advanced high-performance networks, e.g., B-ISDN, as transport mechanism
    • statistical (asynchronous, on demand) TDM (ATDM, STDM)
    • cell header determines the connection the user data belongs to
    • mixing of different cell-rates is possible
      • different bit-rates, constant or variable, feasible
    • interesting for data sources with varying bit-rate:
      • e.g., guaranteed minimum bit-rate
      • additionally bursty traffic if allowed by the network
  • ATM cell:

5 48 [byte]

cell header

user data

connection identifier, checksum etc.

8.2.1

b isdn protocol reference model
3 dimensional reference model

three vertical planes (columns)

user plane

control plane

management plane

three hierarchical layers

physical layer

ATM layer

cell multiplexing/demultiplexing

VPI/VCI translation

cell header generation and verification

GFC (Generic Flow Control)

ATM adaptation layer

Provides different service classes on top of ATM

Out-of-Band-Signaling: user data is transmitted separately from control information

management plane

control

user

plane

plane

higher

higher

layers

layers

plane management

layer management

ATM adaptation layer

ATM layer

physical layer

layers

planes

B-ISDN protocol reference model

8.4.1

what is watm

Wireless ATM

Data

base

ATM

ATM

Switch

ATM

Gateway

Switch

Radio ATM

Mobile ATM

What is WATM ?
  • Concept of W-ATM : Radio ATM + Mobile ATM
  • Radio ATM: Wireless extension of an ATM connections
    • ATM signalling and all virtual connections are transported over the air-interface
    • Radio link protocol for W-ATM (MAC, DLC)
  • Mobile ATM : ATM based fixed network supporting mobility
    • Mobility support (I.e., hand-off, location management, routing etc.)
meaning of watm
Meaning of WATM
  • 3rd-generation of Mobile communication
    • Multimedia-capable integrated wireless network
  • Wireless extensions to ATM networks
    • Support of untethered network members
system design goal of watm
System Design Goal of WATM
  • Flexible multiservice capability including voice, data and multimedia
  • Compatibility with ATM & B-ISDN
  • Guaranteed QoS for various service types
  • Low terminal cost, power consumption and complexity
  • Radio bandwidth efficiency
  • Efficient, scalable and cost-effective network architecture
  • Compliance with regulatory constraints
comparison of watm with other networks

Mobile Speed

Fast

IMT-2000

Cellular

Slow

PCS

Wireless

Movable

ATM

or

Still

Cordless

Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11)

Fixed

Fixed Terminal

(Mbps)

0.1

100

1

10

Comparison of WATM with Other Networks
standardization bodies for watm

International

  • ITU-T/R
  • - FPLMTS

Europe

United States

  • ETSI
  • - RES10 (HIPERLAN)
  • - SMG3/SMG5 (UMTS)
  • ACTS
  • - Median
  • - Magic WAND
  • UMTS Forum
  • 5 GHz
  • - Supernet(WINForum)
  • - NII (Apple)
  • 2.4 GHz
  • - IEEE 802.11

ATM Forum

WATM

Working Group

Japan

MMAC-PC

Standardization Bodies for WATM
watm reference configuration

R13

Mobile ATM NW

R5

R16*

R16*

R5

R10

AP

AP

AP

BS

AP

R15

R4

R4

R9

R8

R6

R7

R17*

Network Mobility

Supporting ATM NW

R11

R14

R16

R15

R3

R4

R0

R3

PCS Netwok

AP

R5

R12

R1

R5

R5

R5

AP

R2

R5

Fixed

ATM NW

BSC

BS

F

IWF

IWF

P

End-user Mobility

Supporting

ATM NW

WATM Reference Configuration

Conf #1: Network to support fixed Wireless Terminal

Conf #2: Network to support Mobile Wireless Terminal

Conf #3: Network to support mobile switches

Conf #4: Wireless Ad-Hoc networks

Conf #5: Network to support PCS access

Conf #6: PCS-ATM network Interworking

wireless access architecture modular access

AP

EMAS-N

RT

EMAS-E

NNI+M

APCP

RT

APCP

AP

EMAS-N

NNI+M

RT

MT

RT

NNI+M ATM wireline links

Wireline Links to radio transceivers

ATM Wireline links to AP

Radio Links

Wireless Access Architecture : Modular Access
  • EMAS-Es are alienated from the radio access mechanisms
  • Access point (AP) implements the radio access functions and deals with all the radio-specific functionality
  • APCP : Access Point Control Protocol. The protocol providing standardized means of interaction between access point and EMAS-E

EMAS : End-user Mobility

supporting ATM switch

EMAS-E : Entry switches

EMAS-N : network switches

watm protocol stack

ATM Applications

ATM API (Xopen/Winsockets 2.0)

Control and Signaling

(Q.2931 + M, UNI 4.0, ...)

User Process

(TCP, ...)

ATM Adaptation Layer (SAAL, AAL1...ALL5)

ATM Layer

wireless DLC

wireless MAC

SDH/SONET

TAXI

UTP-3

wireless interface

Physical Layer

WATM Protocol Stack
wireless atm protocol stack mobile end users

End-User

Wireless

End-User

ATM

M.S. ATM

Access

M.S. ATM

Switch

Switch

Point

Switch

ATM

ATM

ATM

WAL PHY

PHY PHY

PHY

A

PNNI+M P-NNI

P-NNI+M

P

UNI+M UNI

UNI+M UNI+M

C

B-ICI+M B-ICI

B-ICI+M

P

SAAL

SAAL

ATM

ATM

PHY

PHY

Wireless ATM Protocol StackMobile End Users

End User Mobility Supporting ATM Network (1)

Mobile End-Users Networks (1)

WMATM

Terminal

User Applic.

AAL

U-Plane

ATM

EMAS-E

EMAS-N

WAL

UNI + M

C-Plane

SAAL

ATM

WAL

ATM

Wireless

MATM

Terminal

U-Plane

Terminal

PHY

Adaptor

User Applic.

A

P-NNI

P

AAL

UNI

C

B-ICI

P

U-Plane

ATM

ATM

SAAL

SAAL

PHY WAL

PHY

ATM

ATM

C-Plane

UNI + M

WAL PHY

PHY

C-Plane

SAAL

ATM

ATM

PHY WAL

PHY

description of the protocols
Description of the Protocols
  • APCP: Access Point Control Protocol
    • used between the access point and the switch.
    • foreseen only in the case of the need of the communication of information related to the status of the radio resources from the access point to the switch.
    • foreseen that the Access Point does not perform ATM switching functions.
  • B-ICI’: B-ICI with supplemental signaling information to support the transport of the mobility information
  • B-ICI+M: B-ICI with supplemental signaling information to support mobility
    • +M could represent more than one protocol operating on the interface
  • P-NNI’: P-NNI with supplemental signaling information to support the transport of the mobility information
  • P-NNI+M: PNNI with supplemental signaling information to support mobility
  • UNI’: UNI with supplemental signaling information to support the transport of the mobility information
  • UNI+M: UNI with supplemental signaling information to support mobility
  • WAL: Wireless Access Layer. The WAL is the wireless segment for end-to-end ATM connection. It includes the wireless MAC, LLC, and PHY layers.
end to end connection over watm

ATM Terminal

Mobile ATM Terminal

Base Station Controller

User Service

User Service

M-Ctrl

M-Ctrl

Q.2931

Q.2931

Q.2931

AAL

SAAL

SAAL

AAL

SAAL

ATM

ATM

ATM

M-LLC

M-LLC

PHY

PHY

M-MAC

M-MAC

M-PHY

M-PHY

Wireless Channel

VCC

end-point

ATM Network

User plane

End-to-End Connection over WATM
  • Protocol Stacks for a Full Integration of Mobile ATM Terminals to a Fixed ATM Network
functional model for modular access scheme

User Side

Network Side

Inf.a

CCF

Inf. 5

NSA

Inf. 1

CCFT

MTSA

IMFT

MMFT

MMF

SCF

APCF

APCF

Inf.2

Inf.7

UIM

ACFT

ACF

Inf.3

RRCT

RRC

ATMCT

ATMC

ATMC

Inf.4

RTRT

RTR

Wireless AP

Mobility Enabled Switch

External ATM network

Mobile Terminal

: logical interface

: physical interface

Functional Model for Modular Access Scheme
wireless mobile terminal side
Wireless mobile terminal side
  • Mobility Management Function (MMFT)
    • analysis and monitoring of the network, paging response, location update
  • Call control and Connection control Function (CCFT)
    • call set-up and release, access control, connection control
  • Identity Management Function (IMFT)
    • security related information, user dependent
  • Mobile Terminal Security Agent (MTSA)
    • additional security information, user independent
  • Radio Transmission and Reception (RTRT)
    • LLC, MAC, PHY layers for radio transmission
  • Radio Resource Control function (RRCT)
    • trigger handovers, monitor radio access, control radio resources
  • Association Control Function (ACFT)
    • set-up and release access to access point
  • ATM Connection function (ATMCT)
    • responsible for ATM connections, standard services (CBR, VBR, ABR, UBR)

Service and Connection Control Functional Entities

Radio and Access Control Functional Entities

mobility supporting network side
Mobility supporting network side
  • Access Point Control Function (APCF)
    • paging, handover, AP management
  • Call control and Connection control Function (CCF)
    • call set-up and release, connection control, requests network and radio resources
  • Network Security Agent (NSA)
    • identity management, authentication, encryption, confidentiality control
  • Service Control Function (SCF)
    • management of service profiles, consistency checks
  • Mobility Management Function (MMF)
    • location management, handover, location data, subscriber identity
  • Association Control Function (ACF)
    • set-up and release access to mobile terminal
  • Radio Resource Control function (RRC)
    • management of radio channels, initiate handover
  • Radio Transmission and Reception function (RTR)
    • LLC, MAC, PHY layers, support of ATM traffic parameters
  • ATM Connection function (ATMC)
    • responsible for ATM connections, standard services (CBR, VBR, ABR, UBR)

Service and Connection Control Functional Entities

Radio and Access Control Functional Entities

work items for watm
Work Items for WATM
  • Radio ATM
    • Radio physical layer
    • MAC for wireless channel (with QoS)
    • Data link control for wireless channel errors
    • Wireless control protocol for radio resource management
  • Mobile ATM
    • Hand-off control (signaling/NNI extensions, etc)
    • Location management for mobile terminals
    • Routing considerations for mobile connections
    • Traffic/QoS control for mobile connections
    • Wireless network management
radio access layer ral requirements phy layer
Radio Access Layer (RAL) requirements: PHY layer
  • Definition of cell characteristics
    • frequencies, efficient re-use of frequencies, antennas, power, range
  • Carrier frequency, symbol rate, modulation, coding, training sequences etc.
  • Data and control interfaces to the radio unit
  • Requirements
    • Bit Error Rate (BER) <= 10-4, availability 99.5 %
    • data rate: 25 Mbit/s
    • range: indoor 30-50 m, outdoor 200-300 m
    • power: 100 mW
radio access layer ral requirements mac layer
Radio Access Layer (RAL) requirements: MAC layer
  • Supports
    • simultaneous access of several mobile terminals to the medium
    • several ATM service classes (CBR, VBR, ABR, UBR) including QoS control
  • MAC protocol and syntax definition, MAC control algorithms
  • Interfaces to PHY and LLC layer
  • Support of user mobility
  • Requirements
    • MAC efficiency: 60-75 % (over 90% is possible)
    • data rates
      • peak 25 Mbit/s
      • sustained 6 Mbit/s
      • still efficient for low rates (e.g., 32 kbit/s CBR)
radio access layer ral requirements llc layer
Radio Access Layer (RAL) requirements: LLC layer
  • Layer between ATM and MAC/PHY layers to solve specific problems of the wireless transmission
  • Definition of LLC protocol and syntax
    • wireless header, control messages
  • Special functions for ATM service classes
    • error control
      • error detection and correction
      • selective retransmission
    • forward error correction
  • Requirements
    • mandatory: ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request)
    • optional: FEC for real-time services
    • optional: meta-signaling to support handover
wireless access layers for watm

Wireless ATM terminal

User Service

Q.2931

User Service

AAL

SAAL

ATM multiplexer

Q.2931

M-Ctrl

ATM

AAL

SAAL

ATM terminal

ATM multiplexer

ATM

ATM

PHY

W-LLC

User Service

ATM

W-MAC

PHY

Q.2931

PHY

W-PHY

PHY

PHY

PHY

PHY

AAL

SAAL

Base station

ATM

User Service

M-Ctrl

PHY

Q.2931

Q.2931

M-Ctrl

SAAL

AAL

SAAL

ATM

ATM

W-LLC

ATM

W-LLC

W-MAC

PHY

W-MAC

PHY

W-PHY

User Service

W-PHY

PHY

Q.293

1

AAL

SAAL

ATM

User Service

Q.2931

M-Ctrl

PHY

AAL

SAAL

ATM

ATM

W-LLC

W-MAC

PHY

PHY

W-PHY

Wireless Access Layers for WATM

Multiplexing in Wired ATM Network

  • Multiplexing in Wireless ATM Network
    • (1) Mobile = Distributed Queue
    • (2) Channel = Unreliable Bit Pipe

Issue : How to extend the ATM statistical multiplexing technique to the air interface to provide services of different types of traffic with a certain degree of guarantee in QoS?

mac requirements for watm
MAC Requirements for WATM
  • MAC Address scheme : use some form of IEEE 48 bit addressing
  • Multiple Access : TDMA with time division duplex and dynamic slot assignment
  • Architecture : Access point based using a centralized control
watm mac model
WATM MAC Model
  • Generic MAC Model
  • Scheduler

- responsible for dynamic slot assignment

- based upon the static and dynamic parameters

mac protocol attributes of watm
MAC Protocol Attributes of WATM
  • Infrastructure
    • 기지국 중심망 : dynamic slot assignment 방식에 적합
    • Ad-hoc 망
  • Wireless access scheme
    • FDMA/TDMA/CDMA/Hybrid
      • 고속전송 모뎀구현에 적합한 FDMA/TDMA 복합방식을 우선적으로 고려함.
      • CDMA 방식: 고속 전송 시 높은 시스템 복잡도; 밀리미터파 대역에서의 많은 가용 대역에 따라 CDMA 방식의 주파수 효율성으로 인한 장점이 상대적으로 미약해짐.
  • Duplex scheme
    • Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
      • 모뎀설계 단순화
      • 모뎀 송수신 기능 구현이 이중화되어야 함
    • Time Division Duplex (TDD)
      • 송수신간의 turn-around time에 의한 overhead
      • 송수신간의 비대칭적인 traffic 부하에 따라 상하향간 frame 경계를 적응적으로 결정함으로써 효율적인 통계적 다중화 실현 가능
mac protocol attributes of watm cont d
MAC Protocol Attributes of WATM (cont’d)
  • Packet multiple access scheme
    • Collision-free : reservation request에 따라 up-link상의 사용 slot을 기지국이 미리 통보하는 polling 방식
    • Contention-oriented
  • Slot assignment scheme
    • Vertical slot allocation : 각 frame 내의 slot 위치를 고정하여 주기적으로 할당
    • Horizontal slot allocation : 매 slot 단위로 예약
    • Hybrid : service 유형별 traffic 발생 특성과 요구사항에 따라 VSA와 HAS를 혼합 적용
    • 통계적 다중화 이득을 극대화 하기 위한 dynamic slot assignment가 수행되어야 함.
mac protocol attributes of watm cont d32
MAC Protocol Attributes of WATM (cont’d)
  • Reservation request scheme
    • Burst 첫번째 cell에 대한 예약 요청
      • 경쟁방식 : 상향링크에 정해진 예약 slot에서 경쟁에 의해 예약 요청 정보를 전송
      • 지정방식 : 이동국별로 미리 지정된 예약 요청 slot에서 경쟁없이 전송
      • 폴링방식 : 기지국이 일정 주기로 이동국을 polling하여 예약 요청 통보하도록 함
      • 직교신호방식 : orthogonal signal을 사용하여 다수 사용자가 동시에 예약요청 가능
    • Burst의 나머지 cell에 대한 예약 요청
      • cell 단위 경쟁 : burst 내의 나머지 cell들도 첫번째 cell과 동일하게 취급, 전송
      • burst 단위 예약 : 첫번째 cell의 전송이 성공하면 나머지 cell들을 polling에 의해 일정시간동안 또는 burst의 마지막 cell이 전송될 때 까지 기지국에서 할당하는 slot에 전송
  • Signaling
    • Down-link
      • slot 단위: slot 할당결과를 매 slot마다 독립적으로 통보
      • frame 단위: 결과 통보 신호를 그룹화하여 매 frame 당 전송
    • Up-link
      • in-band signaling : scheduling에 필요한 dynamic parameter를 up-link로 전송되는 cell에 piggybacking하는 방식
      • out-of-band signaling : 지정된 신호 slot을 이용하여 parameter를 전송
fdd based mac proposals
FDD-Based MAC Proposals
  • Idea : have two channels per BS coverage area, one for the uplink (UL) and the other for the downlink (DL)
    • UL : used by the MTs for sending request and information packets, according to some reservation and contention algorithm,
    • DL : used by the BS in a scheduled mode, for sending acknowledgments (ACKs) and information packets.
  • Possible to have an almost immediate feedback from the BS in order to know (at the MT) if a request was successful or if a collision occurred.
  • The MAC protocol proposals
    • DQRUMA (Distributed Queuing Request Update Multiple Access)
    • PRMA/DA (Packet Reservation Multiple Access with Dynamic Allocation)
    • DSA++ (Dynamic Slot Assignment Protocol)
    • DTDMA/PR (Dynamic TDMA with Piggybacked Reservation)
tdd based mac proposals
TDD-Based MAC Proposals
  • Use only one carrier frequency to communicate both ways
  • Save some hardware in the MTs since both the transmitter and receiver operate at the same frequency
  • Add extra delay due to the turnover between transmitter and receiver modes
  • The MAC protocol proposals
    • MASCARA (Mobile Access Scheme Based on Contention & Reservation for ATM)
    • PRMA/ATDD (PRMA with Adaptive Time-Division Duplex Protocol)
    • DTDMA/TDD (Dynamic TDMA with Time-Division Duplex Protocol)
overall comparison of the protocols
Overall Comparison of the Protocols

DQRUMA

PRMA/DA

DSA++

DTDMA/PR

MASCARA

PRMA/ATDD

DTDMA/TDD

proposed mac frame types
Proposed MAC Frame Types
  • Frame type 1
    • suitable for the low-bandwidth type of traffic, such as voice traffic
      • periodic short packets
      • delay sensitive,
      • can not afford to have long packetization delays.
    • used to support signaling messages.
  • Frame type 2
    • to increase the efficiency of air interface usage by using one MAC header for several ATM payloads
mac frame field description
MAC Frame Field Description
  • The preamble field (preamble) (16 octets)
    • used for synchronization purpose, etc.
  • The control field (ctl) (2 octets)
    • used to indicate the number of slots the mobile terminal wishes to send in its next frame, the sender and receiver sequence numbers, and others to be defined
  • The address field (address) (6 octes)
    • used to identify the address of the corresponding mobile terminal at the MAC level
  • The header field (hdr) (4 octets)
    • for the ATM header, which does not include the HEC field, since a more powerful CRC field covering the entire frame is added in the MAC frame.
  • The payload field (payload) (48 octets)
    • the same payload as in the ATM cell
  • The CRC field (2 octets)
    • for the error detection for the whole MAC frame; CCITT CRC-16 is a possible candidate.
  • The Guard (Gd) field
    • used to prevent from frame overlapping in the uplink due to varying propagation delays among mobile terminals
location management
Location Management
  • LM enables the network to communicate with MTs by managing the information about the location of the terminal
  • LM = Mobile tracking + Mobile locating
    • Mobile Tracking
      • Network elements updating procedure about the location of mobile entities
      • Mobile registration + updating
    • Mobile Locating
      • The procedure by which a network node determines the location of the mobile for the delivery of incoming calls
      • May be executed explicitly prior to call setup or may be an integral part of the call setup procedure
      • Use the information acquired during the tracking phase
architectural model for lm in watm
End-user mobility enabled switch (EMAS):

identify connection set-up messages destined to MTs

invoke location resolution functions

All edge EMASs may be required to execute location update functions.

“Home” EMASs require the ability to redirect a connection set-up message and perhaps maintain the LS and AUS.

may be required to participate in the redirection of a connection set-up message to the current location of an MT.

E-MAS-E

LS

AUS

AUS

LS

AP

AP

AP

EMAS-E

RP

AP

AP

RP

RP

Integrated Approach

Modular Approach

Architectural Model for LM in WATM
  • Location Server (LS):
    • maintaining the database of associations between the permanent and temporary AESA(ATM End System Addresses)s of mobile terminals
    • keep track of service-specific information for each MT
    • executes query and update protocols to retrieve and modify database entries
  • Authentication Server (AUS):
    • maintaining a secure database of authentication and privacy related information for each MT
    • may implement an authentication protocol with an EMAS or an MT directly.
  • Mobile Terminal (MT):
    • initiate location updates and participate in authentication and privacy protocols
lm requirements for watm
User transparency

Location and user information confidentiality

Cell/network identification

Minimize signaling load

User controlled access to choose desired network under multi-operator conditions

Access restriction

Roaming

Easy inter-working

Support of paging

Scalability

Distributed Servers

Standardized location management

Registration using a standardmechanism

Association

Security for preventing unauthorized access as well as to ensure privacy

Integrated location databases for authentication and location tracking with mobility-enabled switches

Performance: latency in registration, database updates and queries

Routing

LM Requirements for WATM
starting points for watm lm
Starting points for WATM LM
  • IS-41 and GSM MAP(mobile application part )
    • Currently for CO-cellular network
    • Isolates effect for mobility from PNNI routing protocol
    • Explicit “search” procedure prior to call setup
    • Proposed scheme : (external) LR scheme
  • PNNI routing protocol
    • Routing protocol for private ATM networks
    • Propagates reachability information
    • No explicit “search” procedure prior to call setup
    • Proposed scheme : mobile PNNI scheme
      • Extension of the PNNI routing protocol to support MN
        • Use of the PNNI routing protocol for reachability information(RI)
        • Scope parameter for the restriction of RI update
      • No explicit “search” procedure prior to call setup
        • Connection setup combined with mobile locating
      • Requires additional routing optimization process
comparison

Mobile PNNI

Item

LR

Required

Address space partition

Not required

Resource allocation

for call setup

Optimized

Not optimized

Superior in

high CMR

Performance

Superior in low CMR

Modification of ATM

signaling and routing

Required

Not required

Application to

public network

Not Applicable

Applicable

Comparison