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Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications – Short Tutorial and R&D Trends

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  1. Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications – Short Tutorial and R&D Trends Amjad Umar website: www.amjadumar.com Objective: Share Experience based on Industrial involvement and industrial research university teaching Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  2. Outline • Framework for Discussion • Mobile Applications (M-Business, M-Business, M-Government, M-Life, Positional Apps) • Platforms to Support Mobile Applications • Mobile IP • Wireless middleware (WAP, iMode, J2ME, BREW, MMIT) • Wireless Networks • Wireless PANs (Sensor Networks, Bluetooth, UWB) • Wireless LANs (Wi-Fi, 802.11a to n) • Wireless Local Loops and Free Space Optics • Cellular networks: from 1 to 5G Networks • Satellite communications and Deep Space Networking • Security, Integration, and Management Issues • University Course Outline Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  3. The Jargon • State of the art • State of the market • State of the practice Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  4. Framework for Discussion: The Building Blocks Research and development in every building block Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  5. Mobile Computing Applications • Enable the business initiatives by supporting mobility of • Customers • Suppliers and Businesses • Employees • Mobile computing applications • Wireless messaging (e.g., SMS) • Mobile ecommerce (M-Commerce) and its variants • Positional commerce (p-commerce) . • Voice commerce (v-commerce). • Television commerce (T-Commerce) • Mobile ebusiness applications (MEBAs), e.g., M-CRM, M-portal, N-SCM • Specialized applications – Many areas of research • Location sensitive apps (E911) • Wireless sensor network apps • Mobile agent apps • Two views: • Mobile applications are fundamentally new applications. • Mobility is another dimension of the existing applications • Research in every aspect Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  6. Supporting M-Apps: Mobile Computing Platforms Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  7. Mobile Computing Platforms • Mobile operating systems • - Palm OS • -Windows CE • - Symbian OS • Mobile database managers • Mobile transaction managers • Utilities for mobile devices • Wireless Middleware (information hiding versus • Information providing) • Wireless Gateways: Collection of Middleware services • Mobile Application Servers • Research and development in every aspect Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  8. Wireless Web WAP Gateway WML Content (XML/HTML) Web Server Servelet VoiceXML Gateway VoiceXML HTML/XML eCommerce Module • Many players • - WAP • iMode • J2ME • BREW • MMIT Industry activity - Open Mobility Alliance Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  9. Mobile IP – The Roaming in Wireless Internet World Mobile Node A NSP POP Home Network for A 3 Foreign Agent NSP POP Foreign Network for A 4 2 Home Agent IP Network 5 1 • Research issues: • Can Mobile IP replace roaming • Security issues • Performance issues ISP Servers Flash OFDM Uses Mobile IP For cellular networks Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  10. WIRELESS NETWORKS Different type of wireless networks support mobile computing applications and platforms • Wireless Personal Area Networks (Bluetooth, Sensors, UWB, Zigbees) • Wireless LANs (802.11 family) • Fixed Wireless Local loops • Cellular networks • 1G to 5G • Satellite systems Many Research Issues: short list • Lower level issues (e.g., signaling, error correction, smart antennas) • Mobile Adhoc Networks • Voice over 802.11 Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  11. Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  12. Research and Development issues unique to wireless • Frequency allocation (efficient frequency utilization) • Multiple Access (CDMA vs TDMA) • Location services (Data rate versus speed of mobile devices) • Error correction (e.g., Turbo codes) • Signalling and encoding (PCM versus Delta code modulation) • Antenna design (smart antennas) Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  13. Wireless PANs: Home Networking • Players: • Bluetooth • Sensor networks • UWB • 802.11 • Zigbees • HomeR/F (dead) Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  14. Bluetooth PSTN Access Point Cellular Network Wired LAN Bluetooth Piconet (1 Mbps, 10 meters, mobile adhoc network) Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  15. Wireless Sensor Networks Sensor = mote Many R&D efforts Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  16. Centrex 11a, 11b, 11g 11n 11i – security 11e – QoS 802.11 Family LANs Link to Public Ethernet C D T1 or DSL LAN Server Wireless LAN Cell Wireless LAN Cell Z Y Router Wired Ethernet LAN • X, Y, Z are • access points • for the wireless • Ethernet LANs Wireless LAN Cell X • A, B, C, D are • student laptops A B Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  17. Wireless Local Loops Inter- Exchange Switch Telephone • Narrowband –telephony services • Broadband –high-speed data service LAN Toll Connecting Trunks Wireless Local Loop Offerings (MMDS, LMDS) PBX, TV Intertoll Trunks Telephone Inter- Exchange Switch Local Control Office Toll Connecting Trunks Wired Local Loop Interesting applications Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  18. Cellular Networks Cell 1 Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) Mobile Telephone Switching Center (MTSC) Cell 2 HLR VLR Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Mobile User HLR = Home Location Register VLR = Visitor Location Register Cordless connection Wired connection Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  19. Evolution: 1G to 5G 4-5G (10 Mbps+) Data Rates 2 Mbps 3G (144Kbps to 2Mbps) 1 Mbps 100 Kbps 2.5G (10-150Kbps) 10 Kbps 2G (9.6Kbps) • Research Issues • Mobility vs data rate • error correction • Intelligent Antennas • Intelligent radio 1 Kbps 1G (<1Kbps) 1980 2010 1990 2000 Years Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  20. Satellite Communications GEO= 35,000 km, 250 ms delay LEO = 4,000 km, 20 ms delay MEO = 10,000 km, 50 ms delay Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  21. Research Issue:Deep Space Networking Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  22. Other issues • Integration • Security • Management and support • Regulations and standards • Wireless Business and Industry Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  23. Home LAN (802.11) Content Web Office Provider Content LAN (802.11) Wireless and Wired Content WAN Enterprise Cellular Provider Databases Cell Cellular (GSM, GPRS) Cell (3G) Content Provider Hotspot LAN Home (802.11) Enterprise Web LAN Databases Content (Bluetooth) Integration – Vision Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  24. Integration Framework Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  25. Vertical Versus Horizontal Integrations App2 Platform2 App1 Platform1 App1 Platform1 Network1 App 2 Platform2 Network2 Integrated Physical Network b). Horizontal Integration at Network Level a). Total Vertical Integration App1 Network1 App 2 Network2 Integrated Applications Platform1 Network1 Platform2 Network2 Integrated Platform + IP c). Horizontal Integration at Platform Level d). Horizontal Integration at Application Level Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  26. Wireless Security – The Big Picture • Latest Security Technologies • Cryptographic techniques • Managing digital certificates and PKI • Secure payment systems • Significant research developments Unique issues: - medium - mobility Security Solutions • IT Assets • Applications and automated services • Databases, files • Computing platforms • Middleware (e.g., web servers) • Networks (hardware, routing software) • External Factors • Intruder/attacker/assault Threats • Privacy and confidentialty laws • Consumer/customer attitudes • Organizational Requirements • Survivability and Tolerance • Requirements • QoS Requiremensts • Budgettary and policy restrictions • Physical Assets • Humans • Buildings • Other corporate assets • (e.g., planes, trains, and • automobiles) Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  27. User View (PIA4) Privacy • assure privacy of information (i.e., no one other than the authorized people can see the information) in storage or transmission Integrity • the integrity of information (i.e., no unauthorized modification) Authentication: • identify for certain who is communicating with you Authorization (Access control): • determine what access rights that person has). Accountability (Auditing): . • assure that you can tell who did what when and convince yourself that the system keeps its security promises. • Includes non-repudiation (NR) -- the ability to provide proof of the origin or delivery of data. • NR protects the sender against a false denial by the recipient that the data has been received. Also protects the recipient against false denial by the sender that the data has been sent.. • a receiver cannot say that he/she never received the data or the sender cannot say that he/she never sent any data Availability: access to system when a user needs it Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  28. Sample Wireless Security Technologies • SET for transaction security • S/MIME and PGP for secure email • Java security (sandboxes) • Database security Applications Can use higher level services to compensate for lower layers Tradeoffs in performance and security • SSL and TLS • WAP security (WTLS) • Web security (HTTPS, PICS, HTTP Headers) • Proxy server security Middleware TCP/IP • IPSEC and wirless VPN • Mobile IP • 802.11 security (WEP) • Cellular network security • Satellite link security • WLL and cordless link security Wireless Link Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  29. Centrex Wireless Security Example Link to Public Internet C D T1 or DSL LAN Server Wireless LAN Cell Wireless LAN Cell Z Y Router and Firewall Fast Ethernet LAN(Backbone) Wireless LAN Cell 1. No physical net security (server ID/PW) 2. No physical net security (server ID/PW + encryption) 3. Physical net security at APs (optional server ID/PW + encryption) X Wired Ethernet LAN A B Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  30. Wireless Management and Business Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  31. Wireless Wireless Middleware/ Content Mobile Mobile Enterprise Network Network Gateway Providers/ Application Device Wireless Element Users Operators Providers Aggregators Providers Builders Providers Wireless Value Chain Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  32. Wireless Telephone Business Wireless Data Network Business Wireless Management Business Wireless Consulting Business Reference Model 7. Application Applications (e.g., SMS, email, Wireless Web, Mobile EC/EB) Wireless Telephony Applications and Services Wireless Application and Platform Management Systems Consulting 6. Presentation 5. Session 4. Transport IP Data Network Routing PSTN Routing 3. Network Wireless Network Management Wireless Network Consulting and Engineering Services Physical Network Elements 2. Data Layer (Cellular networks, Wireless LANs, Satellites, Wireless Local Loops) Call Switching 1. Physical Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  33. Course Outline: Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications Legend: U: Umar, A., "Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications” Sessions Session 1: Introduction and Mobile Applications U-Ch.1-Ch.2 Session 2: Wireless Web and Wireless Platforms - (U-Ch.3) Session 3: WAP, VoiceXML - (U-Ch.4) Session 4: Wireless Communication Principles (Antennas, Signals) - (U-Ch.5), (S – Ch. 5-6) Session 5: Wireless Communication Technology (spread spectrum, coding and error control ) - (U-Appendix B) Session 6: Wireless LANs and IEEE 802.11 (U-Ch. 6) Session 7: Mobile Adhoc Networks and WPANs (U-Ch. 6, Ch. 7) Session 8:, Bluetooth, UWB, Wireless Sensor Networks (U-Ch. 7-Ch. 10) Session 9: Cellular Networks - 2G, 2.5G, 3G (U-Ch. 8) Session 10: Fixed wireless networks and wireless local loops (U-Ch. 9) Session 11: Satellite Communications, FSO, Flash OFDM - (U-Ch. 9, Ch. 10) Session 12: Wireless Architectures and Traffic Engineering (U-Ch. 11) Session 13: Special topics - wireless security, wireless network management (U-Ch. 12, 13) Session 14-15: Student led discussion on various research and development topics (Project 3) Note: For variants of this course and additional details/instructional materials, contact me. Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  34. Textbook: “Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications”, A. Umar, NGE Solutions, 2004. Available through Amazon.com Part I: Mobile Computing Applications and Platforms Chapter 1: Overview and the Big Picture Chapter 2: Mobile Computing Applications: Supporting M-Business and M-Government Chapter 3: Wireless Internet, Mobile IP, and Wireless Web Chapter 4: Mobile Computing Platforms, Middleware, and Servers Part II: Wireless Networks Chapter 5: Wireless Network Principles Chapter 6: Wireless LANs -- 802.11 and Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Chapter 7: Wireless Personal Area Networks: Bluetooth, UWB, and Sensor Networks Chapter 8: Cellular Networks -- From 1G to 5G Chapter 9: Wireless Local Loops and Satellite Communications Chapter 10: Emerging Wireless Networks: UWB, FSO, MANET, and Flash OFDM Part III: Architectures, Security and Management Chapter 11: Integrated Architectures for Wireless Chapter 12: Wireless Security Chapter 13: Management and Support Issues Part IV: Appendices Appendix A: Tutorial on Network Basics Appendix B: Closer Look at Physical Wireless Communications Ebook version for instructor evaluation and instructor materials are available (contact me) Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  35. Concluding Comments • The following framework (see figure on next page) provides a good framework for R&D trends in mobile computing and wireless communications • Additional details • Email: umar@amjadumar.com • Website: www.amjadumar.com Copyrights: Amjad Umar

  36. Framework for Discussion: The Building Blocks of Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications Research and development in every building block Copyrights: Amjad Umar