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History of Integrated Circuits. In 1961 the first commercially available integrated circuits came from the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation. The original IC had only one transistor, three resistors and one capacitor. . Primary Applications.

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history of integrated circuits
History of Integrated Circuits
  • In 1961 the first commercially available integrated circuits came from the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation.
  • The original IC had only one transistor, three resistors and one capacitor.
primary applications
Primary Applications
  • By 1965 integrated electronics was established in new military systems.
  • The new technology provided radical changes in digital circuitry.
  • There were more restriction in linear systems applications.
moore s law origin and implications

Moore’s law: Origin and implications

In 1965, Gordon Moore wrote an article on Electronics

magazine titled “Cramming more components onto

integrated circuits”

Moore's original statement was:

“The complexity for minimum component costs has

increased at a rate of roughly a factor of two per year ...

Certainly over the short term this rate can be expected to

not to increase. Over the longer term, the rate of increase is

a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it

will not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years. That

means by 1975, the number of components per integrated

circuit for minimum cost will be 65,000.”

undersatnding moore s law
Undersatnding Moore’s Law
  • Moore's Law was initially made in the form of an observation and forecast .
  • Main concepts :
  • Density of transistors double every two years.
  • Complexty of transistors for minimum cost double every year.
three main supporting reasons of moore s law
Three main supporting reasons of Moore’s Law
  • Two-Mil squares: Ability to build 500 transistors per linear inch or 250,000 per quarter inch.
  • Heat Dissipation: Direct access to heat generating sources.
  • High device yield: No fundamental obstacle to achieving device yield of 100%.
slide8
The popularized statement of Moore's Law is that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every 18 to 24 months.

The evidence of the past 45 years supports the conclusion Moore reached in 1965.

causes of the exponential behavior
Causes of the exponential behavior
  • chip dice were getting bigger
  • evolution to finer minimum dimensions
  • circuit and device cleverness
implications
Implications
  • Makes the thing cheaper and/or more powerful
  • Technological Barometer
  • Industry Driver
end of the moore s law
End of the Moore’s Law

One big question:

How many more years will Moore's Law play out ??

Limits are:

  • Design and manufacturing limits
  • Fabrication cost