slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 43

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 252 Views
  • Uploaded on

UNECE Standards for Fresh Fruit and Vegetables and Dry and Dried Produce (Fruit). Asian seminar for on safe and high quality food New Delhi , 4 – 5 April 200 2 Tom Heilandt Agricultural Standards Unit, UNECE Trade Division. Outline. Commercial quality UNECE Standard Layout

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - Jimmy


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

UNECE Standards for Fresh Fruit and Vegetables and Dry and Dried Produce (Fruit)

Asian seminar for on safe and high quality food

New Delhi, 4 – 5 April 2002

Tom Heilandt

Agricultural Standards Unit, UNECE Trade Division

outline
Outline
  • Commercial quality
  • UNECE Standard Layout
  • Procedure for the development of UNECE Standards
  • Implementation of Standards
  • List of standards
  • Example: UNECE Standard for Mangoes
  • Example: UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels
  • Questions, discussion
commercial quality

External

Cleanliness

Color

Freshness

Shape

Presentation

Packing

COMMERCIAL QUALITY

Internal

Taste

Maturity

evaluation of commercial quality
Evaluation of commercial quality
  • Subjective
    • Sensorial caracteristics (taste, smell, texture, color…)
  • Objective
    • Analytical or physical measurements
unece standard layout
UNECE Standard Layout
  • Definition of produce
  • Minimum requirements
  • Maturity requirements
  • Classification (Extra, class I, class II)
  • Sizing provisions
  • Tolerances (quality, size)
  • Presentation (uniformity, packaging)
  • Marking
  • Annexes: Definitions, Lists of varieties, Testing and Sampling procedures, Definitions
working procedures for the unece meetings
Working procedures for the UNECE meetings
  • All UN and UNECE member countries can participate with the same rights
  • International organisations give input and use the standards
  • International producer, retailer, import/export or consumer organisations are welcome to cooperate and give advice
  • Decisions are taken on a consensus basis
organizational structure
Organizational Structure

Working Party

on Standardisation of Perishable Produce and Quality Development

Specialized Section on Standardization of

Seed

Potatoes

Fresh Fruit

and Vegetables

Dry and

Dried Fruit

Early and Ware

Potatoes

Meat

process of elaborating a standard
Process of elaborating a standard

Specialized Section and Working Party agree to create/amend a standard

Rapporteur prepares/amends text

Specialized Section discusses

text in detail

Working Party

discusses text in general

UN/ECE Standard

UN/ECE Recommendation

for a 2+1 year trial period

implementation of quality standards
Implementation of quality standards
  • Standardization of the commercial quality
  • Sorting and grading
    • Packing houses
    • Processing centres
    • Distribution centres
  • Quality control
  • Quality assurance
  • Certification
unece standards for fresh fruit and vegetables
UNECE Standards for Fresh Fruit and Vegetables

Headed Cabbages

Carrots

Cauliflowers

Chinese Cabbages

Cherries

Citrus fruit

Cucumbers

Courgettes

Cultivated mushrooms

Edible sweet chestnuts

Fennel

Fresh figs

Garlic

Horse-radish

Kiwifruit

Leeks

Lettuce and endives

Mangoes

Melons

Onions

Peaches and Nectarines

Peas

Pineapples (in preparation)

Plums

Radishes

Raspberries

Ribbed celery

Rhubarb

Scorzonera

Spinach

Strawberries

Sweet peppers

Table grapes

Tomatoes

Watermelons

Witloof chicory

Annonas

Apples and pears

Apricots

Artichokes

Asparagus

Aubergines

Avocados

Beans

Bilberries and Blueberries

Broccoli

Brussels sprouts

unece standard for mangoes
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Published 1988

Last revised 1991

Definition of produce; purpose of the standard

  • This standard applies to mangoes of varieties (cultivars) grown from Mangifera indica L. to be supplied fresh to the consumer, mangoes for industrial processing being excluded.
  • The purpose of the standard is to define quality requirements for mangoes at the export control stage, after preparation and packaging.
unece standard for mangos
UNECE Standard for Mangos

Minimum requirements

  • intact, firm, fresh in appearance
  • sound; produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded
  • clean, practically free from any visible foreign matter
  • practically free from pests and damage caused by pests
  • free from black stains or trails which extend under the skin, marked bruising, damage caused by low temperature, abnormal external moisture, any foreign smell and/or taste.
unece standard for mangoes13
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Maturity

  • Mangoes must be sufficiently developed and display satisfactory ripeness.
  • Mangoes must be carefully picked at the stage of physiological development so as to enable them:
    • to ensure a continuation of the ripening process until they reach the appropriate degree of ripeness corresponding to the varietal characteristics,
    • to withstand transport and handling, and
    • to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination.
  • In relation to the evolution of maturing, the colour may vary according to variety.
unece standard for mangoes14
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Extra Class

  • superior quality
  • Shape and colouring must be characteristic of the variety.
  • free of defects, with the exception of very slight superficial defects provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package.
unece standard for mangoes15
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Class I

  • good quality, characteristic of the variety.
  • slight defects may be allowed provided these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package:
    • slight defects in shape
    • slight defects of the skin due to rubbing or sunburn, suberized stains due to resin exudation (elongated trails included) and healed bruises not exceeding 3, 4, 5 cm 2 for size groups A, B, C respectively.
    • scattered rusty lenticels
    • a yellowing of green varieties due to exposure to direct sunlight, not exceeding 40 per cent of the surface of the fruit, excluding necrotic stains.
unece standard for mangoes16
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Class II

  • mangoes which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes but satisfy the minimum requirements
  • defects may be allowed provided the mangoes retain their essential characteristics as regards the quality, the keeping quality and presentation:
    • defects in shape
    • defects of skin due to rubbing or sunburn, suberized stains due to resin exudation (elongated trails included) and healed bruises not exceeding 5, 6, 7 cm2 for size groups A, B, C respectively.
    • scattered rusty lenticels
    • a yellowing of green varieties due to exposure to direct sunlight, not exceeding 40 per cent of the surface of the fruit, excluding necrotic stains.
unece standard for mangoes17
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Sizing

Size is determined by the weight of the fruit. The minimum weight of mangoes must not be less than 200 g.

Mangoes are sized according to the following size groups:

Size codeWeight in grammesMaximum permissable difference

between fruit within the package

ingrammes

A 200 ‑ 350 75

B 351 ‑ 550 100

C 551 ‑ 800 125

unece standard for mangoes18
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Quality tolerances allowed in each package

  • "Extra Class"
    • 5 per cent by number or weight of mangoes not satisfying the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class I or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that class.
  • Class I
    • 10 per cent by number or weight of mangoes not satisfying the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class II or, exceptionally, coming within the tolerances of that class.
  • Class II
    • 10 per cent by number or weight of mangoes satisfying neither the requirements of the class nor the minimum requirements, with the exception of fruit affected by rotting, marked bruising or any other deterioration rendering it unfit for consumption.
unece standard for mangoes19
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Size tolerances allowed in each package

For all classes: 10 per cent by number or weight of mangoes conforming to half of the permissible difference of the related size group above or below the range specified on the package,

with a minimum of 180 g for those packed in the smallest size range and a maximum of 925 g for those in the largest size range.

unece standard for mangoes20
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Uniformity

  • The contents of each package must be uniform and contain only mangoes of the same origin, variety, quality and size.
  • The visible part of the contents of the package must be representative of the entire contents.
unece standard for mangoes21
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Packaging

  • Mangoes must be packed in such a way as to protect the produce properly.
  • The materials used inside the package must be new, clean and of a quality such as to avoid causing any external or internal damage to the produce.
  • The use of materials and particularly paper or stamps bearing trade specifications is allowed provided the printing or labelling has been done with non‑toxic ink or glue.
  • Packages must be free of all foreign matter.
unece standard for mangoes22
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Marking

  • Each package must bear the following particulars, in letters grouped on the same side, legibly and indelibly marked, and visible from the outside.
    • Package units of produce prepacked for direct sale to the consumer shall not be subject to these marking provisions but shall conform to the national requirements. However, the markings referred to shall in any event be shown on the transport packaging containing such package units.
  • Identification
    • Packer ) Name and address or
    • and/or ) officially issued or
    • Dispatcher ) accepted code mark.
unece standard for mangoes23
UNECE Standard for Mangoes

Nature of the produce

  • "Mangoes" if the contents are not visible from the outside
  • Name of the variety.

Origin of the produce

  • Country of origin and, optionally, district where grown or national, regional or local place name.

Commercial specifications

  • Class
  • Size expressed as minimum and maximum weight
  • Size code (optional)
  • Number of fruit.

Official control mark (optional)

unece standards for dry and dried produce fruit
UNECE standards for dry and dried produce (fruit)

Pine nuts, decorticated peeled Pistachio kernels, decorticated and

decorticatedpeeled

Pistachio kernels, unshelled

Prunes, sweet

Almonds, decorticated

Sweet almonds, unshelled

Walnut kernels

Walnuts, inshell

Apples, dried

Apricots, dried

Cashew kernels

Dates, whole

Figs, dried

Grapes, dried

Hazelnuts, inshell

Hazelnut kernels

Pears, dried

unece standard for cashew kernels
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Rapporteur: India

Published 1999

Definition of produce; purpose of the standard

  • This standard applies to cashew kernels obtained by heating, shelling and peeling the true fruits of the cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale Linneaus). It does not apply to cashew kernels for further processing.
  • Oil frying or roasting are not considered to be 'further processing' where cashew kernels are intended for direct consumption.
  • The purpose of the standard is to define the quality requirements of cashew kernels at the export control stage after preparation and packaging.
unece standard for cashew kernels26
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Styles

  • Whole: whole kernels of characteristic shape.
    • The presence of a small hole at the proximal end of the kernel or a central split or crack is not considered a defect.
    • Kernels with no more than one eighth of the kernel broken off can also be considered as whole.
  • Brokens are kernels where one eighth or more of the original kernel is broken off. Designations of brokens as follows:
    • Butts: Kernels of not less than 3/8th of a whole kernel which have been broken crosswise but the cotyledons are still naturally attached.
    • Splits: Kernels split lengthwise naturally.
    • Pieces: Kernels which have broken into more than two pieces.
unece standard for cashew kernels27
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Minimum requirements

  • sound; produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded,
  • sufficiently developed,
  • clean, practically free from any visible foreign matter,
  • free from insects or mites whatever their stage of development and visible damage by insects, mites or other parasites,
  • free from mould, of any rancidity, from adhering testa or shell liquid, of foreign smell and/or taste.
unece standard for cashew kernels28
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Maturity requirements

  • The condition of the cashew kernels must be such as to enable them:
    • to withstand transport and handling; and
    • to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination.

Moisture content

  • Cashew kernels shall have a moisture content of not greater than 5%.
unece standard for cashew kernels29
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

"Extra" class

  • superior quality
  • characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type
  • their colour should be white, pale ivory, pale ash-grey or light yellow and should be uniform.
  • practically free from defects with the exception of very slight superficial defects provided that these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality or its presentation in the package.
unece standard for cashew kernels30
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Class I

  • good quality
  • characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type.
  • their colour may be of light brown, light ivory, yellow, light ash-grey or deep ivory as a result of overheating.
unece standard for cashew kernels31
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Class II

  • cashew kernels which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes, but which satisfy the minimum requirements
  • Immature and speckled kernels are permitted provided they do not affect the characteristic shape of the kernel. Their colour may be light or deep brown, amber, light or deep blue.
  • The kernels may be discoloured and black spotted.
unece standard for cashew kernels32
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Sizing: Whole

  • Sizing is compulsory in "extra class", but optional for "class I" and "class II".
  • Designation of sizes of whole kernels are as follows:
  • Size DesignationNumber of kernels per Kg

150 265-325

180 326-395

210 395-465

240 485-530

280 575-620

320 660-706

400 707-880

450 881-990

500 990-1100

unece standard for cashew kernels33
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Sizing: Brokens

  • Large pieces
    • not passing through a sieve of aperture 4.75mm
  • Small pieces ("Medium Brazilian Pieces")
    • passing through a sieve of aperture 4.75mm but not passing through a sieve of aperture 2.80mm.
  • Very Small Pieces ("Small Brazilian Pieces") - sizing optional
    • passing through a sieve of aperture 2.80mm but not passing through a sieve of aperture 2.36mm.
  • "Baby bits" or "granules"
    • Plemules and fragments of kernels passing through a sieve of aperture 2.80mm but not passing through a sieve of aperture 1.70mm.
unece standard for cashew kernels34
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Quality tolerances allowed in each package (per cent by weight of kernels:

Permitted defects Extra Class I Class II

Total tolerances 8 11 14

Superficial damage 1 2 5

Immature or shrivelled

(deformed) 1 2 5

Coloured kernels

of next lower grade (NLG) 5 7.5 -

Speckled or spotted

(black or brown) 0.5 0.5 -

Presence of testa 1 1 5

Insect damage 0.5 0.5 1

Mouldy, rancid or rotten 0.0 0.5 c 1

Foreign matter 0.05 0.05 0.05

unece standard for cashew kernels35
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Determination of rancidity for brokens

  • For brokens, rancidity is to be determined as free fatty acid and/or peroxide value.
  • The maximum tolerated for free fatty acid is 1% (expressed as oleic acid) and
  • for peroxide, the maximum tolerated is 5 meq/kg (milliequivalents of oxygen per kilogram), both on the basis of extracted oil
unece standard for cashew kernels36
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Mineral Impurities

  • Acid insoluble ash must not exceed 1g/kg

Size tolerances allowed in each package

    • For "whole" kernelsthat have been size graded, the quantity of kernels of next lower size grade (NLSG) shall not exceed 5% by weight for "extra class", and 7.5% by weight for "class I" and "class II" at the time of packing.
    • For all "whole" kernels, whether or not size graded, the quantity of brokens or pieces for "extra class", "class I" and "class II" shall not exceed 5% by weight at the time of packing.
    • For "butts" and "splits" the quantity of pieces present for "extra class", "class I" and "class II" shall not exceed 5% by weight at the time of packing.
unece standard for cashew kernels37
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Packaging

  • Cashew kernels must be packed in such a way as to protect the produce properly, usually in hermitically sealed containers, either as rigid metal cans or flexible packs with barrier properties, under an inert gas or vacuum.
  • The use of materials, particularly paper or stamps bearing trade specifications is allowed provided the printing or the labelling has been done with non-toxic ink or glue.
  • The use of lead solder is not permitted.
unece standard for cashew kernels38
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Presentation

  • in small packages for direct sale to the consumer;
  • bulk packages e.g. 11.34 kilogramme cans flexible packs etc.
unece standard for cashew kernels39
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Marking

Each package or case (for small retail packs) must bear thefollowing particulars in letters grouped on the same side, legibly and indelibly marked and visible from the outside:

Identification

  • Packer ) Name and address or
  • and/or ) officially issued or
  • Dispatcher) accepted code mark

Nature of Produce

  • "Cashew kernels", if the contents not visible from outside
  • Name of the variety and/or commercial type
unece standard for cashew kernels40
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Origin of produce

  • Country of origin and, optionally, district where grown or national, regional or local place name

Commercial specification

  • Class ("extra", class I or class II or alternative acceptable designations as described in Annex II)
  • Style ("whole", "butts", "splits" or "pieces")
  • Size designation (if sized)
  • Crop year (optional)
  • Net weight, or the number of package units, followed by the net weight in the case of packages containing such units.

Official control mark (optional)

unece standard for cashew kernels41
UNECE Standard for Cashew Kernels

Annexes

Annex I: Determination of the moisture content of cashews

  • Method 1 - laboratory reference method
  • Method 2 - rapid method

Annex II: Optional designations of classes

  • white, scorched, scorched seconds, dessert

Annex III: Definitions of defects

information about meetings and standards
Information about meetings and standards
  • Next meeting on fresh produce: 23-26 April 2002
    • Main topics: Annonas, Apples, Pears, Avocados, Citrus Fruit, Kiwifruit, Peaches and Nectarines, Table Grapes, Pineapples, use of trademarks, produce coding
  • Next meeting on dry and dried produce: 21-24 May 2002
    • Main Topics: Almonds, Pistachios, determination of the moisture content
un ece standards and meeting information on the internet
UN/ECE standards and meeting information on the internet
  • Http://www.unece.org/trade/agr/welcome.htm