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Human Body Systems. Levels of Organization in the Body. Cells Tissues Epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous Organs Examples include stomach, liver, heart Organ Systems Examples include digestive and circulatory systems. Tissues in the Human Body. Epithelial

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levels of organization in the body
Levels of Organization in the Body
  • Cells
  • Tissues
    • Epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
  • Organs
    • Examples include stomach, liver, heart
  • Organ Systems
    • Examples include digestive and circulatory systems
tissues in the human body
Tissues in the Human Body
  • Epithelial
    • Covering or lining tissue
  • Connective
    • Joins, stores and supports
  • Muscle
    • Internal and external movement
  • Nerve
    • Conducts electrical signals

Blood

Muscle

Nerve

human organ systems
Human Organ Systems

Skeletal Muscular

Circulatory Immune

Respiratory Digestive

Excretory Reproductive

Nervous Endocrine

Integumentary

human skeletal system
Human Skeletal System
  • Functions
    • Framework and support
    • Protection
    • Storage
  • Axial and appendicular skeleton
  • Bone structure
  • Joints and ligaments
human skeleton diagram

Skull

Scapula

Clavicle

Humerus

Sternum

Ribs

Ulna

Radius

Carpals

Metacarpals

Pelvis

Phalanges

Femur

Patella

Fibula

Tibia

Tarsals

Metatarsals

Human Skeleton Diagram

Phalanges

Phalanges

human muscular system
Human Muscular System
  • Functions
    • Movement
    • Warmth
    • Posture
  • Muscle Properties
    • Ability to contract
    • Ability to be stretched
    • Ability to respond to a stimulus
  • Muscle Types
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
human muscular system diagram

Deltoid

Pectoralis major

Biceps brachi

Gluteus maximus

Rectus femoris

Gastrocnemius

Human Muscular System Diagram
skeletal muscle contraction
Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Myosin

Actin

Sarcomere

human circulatory system
Human Circulatory System
  • Transports nutrients, gases, wastes, water, and hormones and also distributes heat
  • Structures of circulatory system
    • Heart
    • Vessels
    • Blood
  • Lymphatic system

Erythrocytes

White blood cells

diagram of human heart

Aorta

Superior vena cava

Pulmonaryartery

Left atrium

Right atrium

Mitral Valve

Tricuspid Valve

Left Ventricle

Right Ventricle

Anterior view

Diagram of Human Heart
human immune system
Human Immune System
  • Nonspecific defense responses
    • Skin and mucous membranes
    • Inflammatory response
    • Temperature
    • Proteins
    • White blood cells
  • Specific immune responses
    • Humoral immunity
    • Cell-mediated immunity
disease prevention in humans
Disease Prevention in Humans
  • Identifying Pathogens - Koch’s Postulates
  • Vaccination - Edward Jenner
  • Disorders
    • Allergies
    • Autoimmune disease
    • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
human respiratory system
Human Respiratory System
  • Respiration is gas exchange between an organism and the environment
  • Respiratory structures include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli
  • Mechanics of Breathing
  • Respiratory Diseases

Exhalation

Inhalation

human respiratory system diagram

Nasal Passage

Pharynx

Larynx

Trachea

Bronchus

Bronchioles

Alveoli

Human Respiratory System Diagram
human digestive system
Human Digestive System
  • Digestion is the breakdown of nutrients to a level that can be used by cells of the body.
  • Structures
    • GI tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine)
    • Accessory (teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas)
  • Nutrition
human digestive system diagram

Mouth

Pharynx

Esophagus

Liver

Stomach

Large Intestine

Small Intestine

Villi

Human Digestive System Diagram
human excretory system
Human Excretory System
  • Excretion is the removal of metabolic wastes from the body, including toxic chemicals, excess water, carbon dioxide and salts.
  • Excretory Organs
    • Skin
    • Lungs
    • Kidneys
human urinary system diagram

Nephron

Kidney

Kidney

Ureter

Urinary

Bladder

Urethra

Human Urinary System Diagram
human reproductive system
Human Reproductive System
  • Produces gametes (eggs and sperm)
  • Fertilization – produce zygote
  • Male Reproductive System
    • Testes
    • Epididymus, vas deferens, urethra, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, Cowper’s gland
  • Female Reproductive System
    • Ovary
    • Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina
human male reproductive system
Human Male Reproductive System

Urinary bladder

Vas deferens

Prostate gland

Seminal vesicle

Epididymus

Urethra

Penis

Testis

human female reproductive system

Fallopian tube

Uterus

Urinary bladder

Vagina

Anterior View

SagittalView

Fallopian tube

Uterus

Ovary

Vagina

Human Female Reproductive System
human endocrine system
Human Endocrine System
  • The endocrine system consists of ductless glands that produce hormones.
    • Hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovary, testes
  • Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the blood stream and affect activities throughout the body.
    • Steroid hormones
    • Nonsteroid hormones
human endocrine system diagram

Hypothalamus and

Pituitary gland

Thyroid and

Parathyroid glands

Thymus

Adrenal gland

Pancreas

Ovary

Testis

Human Endocrine System Diagram
human nervous system
Human Nervous System
  • Controls and coordinates functions throughout the body
  • Neurons are specialized cells that transmit impulses throughout the body.
  • Nervous System
    • Central Nervous System
    • Peripheral Nervous System
      • Somatic
      • Autonomic
human neuron diagram

Dendrite

Cell body

Myelin sheath

Axon

Node of Ranvier

Axon

terminals

Human Neuron Diagram
diagram of human brain

Cerebrum

Corpus

callosum

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

Midbrain

Cerebellum

Pons

Medulla

oblongata

Spinal cord

Diagram of Human Brain
human integumentary system
Human Integumentary System
  • Consists of the skin, hair, and nails
  • Skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
  • Subcutaneous tissue
  • Hair and nails
homeostasis regulating the internal environment
Homeostasis: Regulating the Internal Environment
  • A controlled, stable internal environment
  • Gains and losses must balance
  • Control systems
    • Receptor, control center, effector
    • Feedback loops
      • Negative feedback
      • Positive feedback
thank you
Thank You
  • This concludes a brief review of the human body systems.
  • You may find additional information on this section of Domain IV, The Diversity of Life, in the expanded content talks, and in the notes attached to each slide in the library.