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Human Body Systems. Levels of Organization in the Body. Cells Tissues Epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous Organs Examples include stomach, liver, heart Organ Systems Examples include digestive and circulatory systems. Tissues in the Human Body. Epithelial

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Human Body Systems

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    1. Human Body Systems

    2. Levels of Organization in the Body • Cells • Tissues • Epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous • Organs • Examples include stomach, liver, heart • Organ Systems • Examples include digestive and circulatory systems

    3. Tissues in the Human Body • Epithelial • Covering or lining tissue • Connective • Joins, stores and supports • Muscle • Internal and external movement • Nerve • Conducts electrical signals Blood Muscle Nerve

    4. Human Organ Systems Skeletal Muscular Circulatory Immune Respiratory Digestive Excretory Reproductive Nervous Endocrine Integumentary

    5. Human Skeletal System • Functions • Framework and support • Protection • Storage • Axial and appendicular skeleton • Bone structure • Joints and ligaments

    6. Skull Scapula Clavicle Humerus Sternum Ribs Ulna Radius Carpals Metacarpals Pelvis Phalanges Femur Patella Fibula Tibia Tarsals Metatarsals Human Skeleton Diagram Phalanges Phalanges

    7. Haversian system Blood vessels Osteocyte Compact Bone Tissue

    8. Human Muscular System • Functions • Movement • Warmth • Posture • Muscle Properties • Ability to contract • Ability to be stretched • Ability to respond to a stimulus • Muscle Types • Skeletal • Smooth • Cardiac

    9. Deltoid Pectoralis major Biceps brachi Gluteus maximus Rectus femoris Gastrocnemius Human Muscular System Diagram

    10. Three Types of Human Muscle Tissue Skeletal Smooth Cardiac

    11. Skeletal Muscle Contraction Myosin Actin Sarcomere

    12. Human Circulatory System • Transports nutrients, gases, wastes, water, and hormones and also distributes heat • Structures of circulatory system • Heart • Vessels • Blood • Lymphatic system Erythrocytes White blood cells

    13. Aorta Superior vena cava Pulmonaryartery Left atrium Right atrium Mitral Valve Tricuspid Valve Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Anterior view Diagram of Human Heart

    14. Human Immune System • Nonspecific defense responses • Skin and mucous membranes • Inflammatory response • Temperature • Proteins • White blood cells • Specific immune responses • Humoral immunity • Cell-mediated immunity

    15. Disease Prevention in Humans • Identifying Pathogens - Koch’s Postulates • Vaccination - Edward Jenner • Disorders • Allergies • Autoimmune disease • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    16. Human Respiratory System • Respiration is gas exchange between an organism and the environment • Respiratory structures include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli • Mechanics of Breathing • Respiratory Diseases Exhalation Inhalation

    17. Nasal Passage Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchus Bronchioles Alveoli Human Respiratory System Diagram

    18. Human Digestive System • Digestion is the breakdown of nutrients to a level that can be used by cells of the body. • Structures • GI tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine) • Accessory (teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas) • Nutrition

    19. Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Liver Stomach Large Intestine Small Intestine Villi Human Digestive System Diagram

    20. Human Excretory System • Excretion is the removal of metabolic wastes from the body, including toxic chemicals, excess water, carbon dioxide and salts. • Excretory Organs • Skin • Lungs • Kidneys

    21. Nephron Kidney Kidney Ureter Urinary Bladder Urethra Human Urinary System Diagram

    22. Human Reproductive System • Produces gametes (eggs and sperm) • Fertilization – produce zygote • Male Reproductive System • Testes • Epididymus, vas deferens, urethra, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, Cowper’s gland • Female Reproductive System • Ovary • Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina

    23. Human Male Reproductive System Urinary bladder Vas deferens Prostate gland Seminal vesicle Epididymus Urethra Penis Testis

    24. Fallopian tube Uterus Urinary bladder Vagina Anterior View SagittalView Fallopian tube Uterus Ovary Vagina Human Female Reproductive System

    25. Human Endocrine System • The endocrine system consists of ductless glands that produce hormones. • Hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovary, testes • Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the blood stream and affect activities throughout the body. • Steroid hormones • Nonsteroid hormones

    26. Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland Thyroid and Parathyroid glands Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Ovary Testis Human Endocrine System Diagram

    27. Human Nervous System • Controls and coordinates functions throughout the body • Neurons are specialized cells that transmit impulses throughout the body. • Nervous System • Central Nervous System • Peripheral Nervous System • Somatic • Autonomic

    28. Dendrite Cell body Myelin sheath Axon Node of Ranvier Axon terminals Human Neuron Diagram

    29. Cerebrum Corpus callosum Thalamus Hypothalamus Midbrain Cerebellum Pons Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Diagram of Human Brain

    30. Human Integumentary System • Consists of the skin, hair, and nails • Skin • Epidermis • Dermis • Subcutaneous tissue • Hair and nails

    31. Homeostasis: Regulating the Internal Environment • A controlled, stable internal environment • Gains and losses must balance • Control systems • Receptor, control center, effector • Feedback loops • Negative feedback • Positive feedback

    32. Thank You • This concludes a brief review of the human body systems. • You may find additional information on this section of Domain IV, The Diversity of Life, in the expanded content talks, and in the notes attached to each slide in the library.