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What is an Attitude?. “An organized predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner toward a specified class of objects” (Shaver, 1977) Position on a bipolar affective or evaluative dimension (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)

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what is an attitude
What is an Attitude?
  • “An organized predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner toward a specified class of objects” (Shaver, 1977)
  • Position on a bipolar affective or evaluative dimension (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975)
  • Networks of interrelated beliefs that reside in long-term memory and are activated when the attitude object or issue is encountered (Tourangeau & Rasinksi, 1988)
measuring attitudes thurstone s equal appearing intervals 1928
Measuring Attitudes:Thurstone’s Equal Appearing Intervals (1928)
  • Create pool of belief items (~100)
  • ~300 judges rate favorability of items
    • Scale value of item = average rating
    • Exclude items with high variance
  • Final scale: ~20 evenly distributed items
  • Person checks items (s)he agrees with
  • Score = median value of checked items
measuring attitudes likert s summated ratings 1932
Measuring Attitudes:Likert’s Summated Ratings (1932)
  • Create pool of belief items
  • Decide how to score each (+ or -)
    • exclude neutral or ambiguous items
  • Administer to relevant sample
    • bipolar SA (+2) to SD (-2) scale
  • Criterion of internal consistency
    • item-total correlations & Coefficient Alpha
issues with likert scales
Issues with Likert Scales
  • Ambiguity of SD responses
    • Women deserve same job opportunities as men
    • So use bipolar scales (“Women deserve…”)
  • Scaling is compensatory
    • 5 SA + 5 SD = 10 N = 5A + 5D
  • Include neutral midpoint?
  • How many anchors?
measuring attitudes guttman s scalogram 1944
Measuring Attitudes:Guttman’s Scalogram (1944)
  • Create set of items that form a uni-dimensional hierarchy
  • Score = “highest” item person endorses
  • e.g., attitudes towards gambling:
    • Place bets with bookie
    • Gambling trips to Las Vegas
    • Bet on greyhounds/horses
    • Office football/basketball pools
    • Penny ante poker with friends
    • No-stakes wager with a friend
measuring attitudes osgood s semantic differential scale
Measuring Attitudes:Osgood’s Semantic Differential Scale
  • Subjects rate items on bipolar adjectives:
    • good…………………………………bad
    • favorable ……………………unfavorable
    • like……………………………….dislike
  • Score = sum of responses to all items
  • Most direct measure of evaluation/affect
what is job satisfaction
What is Job Satisfaction?
  • Spector:
    • “the degree to which people like their jobs”
    • “How people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs”

Work

characteristics

Job

Satisfaction(s)

simple discrepancy models
Porter (1961): Need Satisfaction

Desired-Actual

Minnesota Work Adjustment Model

20 “reinforcers” (based on Murray’s 12 needs)

Locke (1976): Values

“Job satisfaction results from appraisal of one’s job as attaining…one’s important job values”

provided these values are congruent with basic needs

Simple Discrepancy Models
slide10

Objective

characteristics

Perceived

characteristics

Needs/

Values

Job

Satisfaction(s)

frame of reference models
March & Simon

Evaluation of inducements/contributions ratio

Labor market affects value of contributions

Cornell Model: Outcomes vs. Expectations

Evaluations of outcomes are affected by Frame of Reference (alternatives, past experience, economy)

Hulin, Roznowski & Hachiya (1985)

Frame of reference influences both contributions and inducements

Frame of Reference Models
slide12

Objective

characteristics

Perceived

characteristics

Frame of Reference

Needs/

Values

Job

Satisfaction(s)

questioning the situational view
Questioning the Situational View
  • A chink in the armor: are perceptions veridical with objective reality?
  • Social Information Processing model
  • Dispositional View
alternative models of js social information processing model
Alternative Models of JS:Social Information Processing Model

Social construction of attitudes vs objective characteristics)

Salancik & Pfeffer (1978)

Roots in Schachter & Singer (1962)

Attitude statements based on:

Perception of affective components

Social context cues

Self-attributions about behavior

Generalized

Arousal

Event

JS

Cues

alternative models of js dispositional approach
Alternative Models of JS:Dispositional Approach
  • Staw & Ross (1985)
    • Surprising stability over time/situations
  • Staw, Bell & Clausen (1986)
    • Childhood temperament predicts adult JS
  • Arvey et al. (1989)
    • JS has hereditary component (30%)
caveats re dispositional approach
Caveats re: Dispositional Approach
  • General questions about behavioral genetics
  • Gerhart (1987): Situation AND Disposition
    • Compared effects on current satisfaction of prior satisfaction, pay, job complexity
    • Job complexity had strongest effect
  • Why isn’t extrinsic satisfaction heritable?
  • Why is JS heritable? A JS gene?
temperament and job satisfaction
Temperament and Job Satisfaction
  • Trait NA/PA may be key factor
    • Some reason to believe that it may have biological basis, and thus inheritable
  • Those high in NA are more likely to:
    • Notice negative stimuli
    • Evaluate stimuli in negative terms
    • Recall negative stimuli
    • Create interpersonal conflict  dissatisfaction
primacy of affect or judgment
Primacy of Affect or Judgment

Weiss & Cropanzano (1996)

Events

Affect

JS

Weiss et al. (1999)

Disposition

Mood at work

JS

Brief (1998)

Disposition

Interpretations

JS

primacy of affect or judgment19
Primacy of Affect or Judgment

Brief & Weiss (2002)

Interpretations

JS

Disposition

Mood

Fuller et al. (2003)

Strain

JS

Stress events

Mood

slide20

Attitudes and Behavior

Attitude:

Act

Behavior

Intent

Behavior

Subjective

Norm

Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen)

slide21

Attitudes and Behavior

Behavior

beliefs

Attitude:

Act

Evaluation

Behavior

Intent

Behavior

Normative

beliefs

Subjective

Norm

Motivation

to Comply

Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen)

slide22

Attitudes and Behavior

Behavior

beliefs

Attitude:

Act

Evaluation

Behavior

Intent

Behavior

Normative

beliefs

Subjective

Norm

Constraints

Motivation

to Comply

Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen)