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The Development of Education in Korea. : Past Achievement and Current Challenges. Chong Jae Lee Seoul National University. Background paper for the East Asia Study Tour for Senior African Education Policy Makers Organized by World Bank on June 19-23, 2006. Ⅰ. Introduction. Purposes

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the development of education in korea

The Development of Education in Korea

: Past Achievement and Current Challenges

Chong Jae Lee

Seoul National University

  • Background paper for the East Asia Study Tour for Senior African Education Policy Makers

Organized by World Bank on June 19-23, 2006

introduction
Ⅰ. Introduction
  • Purposes
    • Overview Korean approach to past development and current challenges in education sector
    • Identify key policy choices that help explain howeducational development patterns contribute to the successful economic growth in Korea
    • Highlight key lessons learned from Korean development over past six decades
setting the stage where we started in 1945
Ⅱ. Setting the stage: where we started in 1945

In 1945

  • Educational attainment level of Korea population
    • 13+ years population: 15 million
    • Never attendance: 12.3 million (79.8%)
    • Elementary education and more: 1.9 million (8.3%)
  • Enrollment Ratio of elementary education(6-12yrs)
    • 1945: 64.0%
    • 1948: 74.8%
  • Enrollment Ratio of Secondary education: 3.2%
setting the stage where we started in 19454
Ⅱ. Setting the stage: where we started in 1945
  • Policy tasks and choices
    • Develop modern school system
    • Expand the access to education
    • Reduce illiteracy (10 million)
  • Development of school system: Access, Relevance and International standards
    • Six years compulsory elementary education
    • Two level of secondary education: Middle and High school
    • Single Track
    • Multiple forms of higher education institutions
    • Dual mode of teacher education
    • Special schools for adult learners
    • “6-3-3-4” Single track system
challenges and main policy choice
Ⅲ. Challenges and Main Policy Choice
  • Key Stages
    • 1948~1960 : Reconstruction
    • 1961~1980 : Education for Economic growth
    • 1981~2000 : Search for New Paradigms
    • 2000~Present : Restructuring
  • Characteristics by Key Stages
    • Challenges to Education
    • Major concerns
    • Policy Choice
    • Resources and tools
how education contribute s economic growth
How education contributes economic growth?

Source: Gwang-Jo Kim, VET in South Korea: Policy Response to Changing World, p. 6.

how education contribute s economic growth9
How education contributes economic growth?
  • Human Resources Development with Rapid and sequential expansion of elementary, secondary and higher education in advanced economic growth and development.
  • Expansion and upgrading of Technical-Vocational education.
  • Special support to improve the conditions of compulsory elementary school
how education contribute economic growth

KOREA

Enrollment rate

of

Secondary

Education

$ 107

$ 380

Per Capita GDP

How education contribute economic growth?
  • Harbison & Myers's observation: Korean expanded secondary education to the level of per capita GNP $380, when its per capita GDP was $ 107.
how education contribute economic growth11
How education contribute economic growth?
  • Sequential expansion of access to education from Elementary, Secondary and Higher Education in advance corresponded well to the manpower needs for Economic development
    • Elementary Ed. → Labor Intensive light

Secondary Ed. Manufacturing

(1960s)

    • Vocational-Technical → Capital Intensive

High schools Heavy-Chemical Industry

(1970s → 1980s)

    • Expansion → Electronics, High-tech

of Higher Education Knowledge Industry

(1980s → Present)

how education contribute economic growth12
How education contribute economic growth?
  • Expand and upgrade Technical and Vocational Education and Training Infrastructure to develop technical manpower
    • 1960’s : Vocational High school

Jr Technical Colleges

Technical Universities

    • 1970’s : Science Education
    • Use of External Loans (IDA, IBRD etc)
  • As part of “5 Years Economic Development Plan” Compulsory Elementary School condition improved
    • Special budget support from Economic Development Account
    • Large class size reduced
how we expand access to education
How we expand access to Education?
  • Development Approach to Korean Education : Major Policies
    • Six-year Compulsory Education plan (1954-1959)
    • Abolition of Entrance Exam to Middle School (1968)
    • High School Equalization Policy (1974)
    • July 30 Educational Reform (1980)
how we expand access to education14
How we expand access to Education?

Six-year compulsory education plan(1954-1959)

  • Context
    • In 1945, the enrollment rate of elementary education was below 50%
  • Policy Measure
    • Six-year compulsory education plan(1954-1959): gradual provision of free compulsory education
    • Low cost approach
      • Lowering educational standards (Large class, Double shift classroom)
      • Relying on private schools to accommodate more students
how we expand access to education15
How we expand access to Education?

Abolition of Entrance Exam to Middle School in 1964

  • Egalitarian approach: Achieving uniform equality
      • Lowering educational standards: class size from 60 to 70
      • Gradual extension of free compulsory education to middle school from rural areas in 1984 to all area in 2004
      • Relying on private schools to accommodate more students.
how we expand access to education16
How we expand access to Education?

High School Equalization Policy in 1974

  • Context
    • Severe competition for entrance to academic high schools resulted in private tutoring
  • Policy Measure
    • To ease the competition and private tutoring to prepare entrance exams to selective academic high schools, high school equalization policy(HEP) formulated in 1974.
      • Abolished entrance examination to high schools and replaced it with state-wide qualification exam (more than 90% could pass)
      • Assign those passed the Qualification exam randomly to one of any high school from cluster of high schools.
      • Private high schools are included in high school cluster.
      • As the case of middle schools, government had to subsidize private high school
how we expand access to education17
How we expand access to Education?

July 30 Educational Reform, 1980

  • Context
    • The excessive competition in the college entrance examination brought the added burden on the expenses for private education.
    • Excessive competition for the entrance exam
    • Overheated private tutoring
  • Policy Measure:
    • Prohibition of private tutoring
    • Expand the admission quota to college and university.
    • The abolition of entrance examination administered by universities and introduce national level examination.
how we expand access to education18

Source: KEDI, Statistical Yearbook of Education 2004

How we expand access to Education?

Quantitative expansion of Secondary Education

  • School Enrollment Rate:
how we expand access to education19

68.0

Source: KEDI, Statistical Yearbook of Education 2004

How we expand access to Education?

Quantitative expansion of Secondary Education

  • Advancement Rate:
how we expand access to education20
How we expand access to Education?

Quantitative expansion of Secondary Education

  • Distribution of Educational Attainment of Population over 25 years old(%)
evolution of technical vocational education training
Evolution of Technical-Vocational Education & Training
  • TVET System
    • Vocational-Technical High Schools
    • Jr Technical Colleges (2-3 years)
    • Universities
    • Open Technical Colleges for Employed
    • Public Job-training centers under Ministry of Labor
    • Private Technical training industries (Nurse-aid, etc)
evolution of technical vocational education training22
Evolution of Technical-Vocational Education & Training

Evolution 1960~1980, Education for Economic Growth Period

  • Policy priority given to TVET during implementation of Economic development plan since 1962
  • Expansion of Vocational High Schools: 1962~1980
    • Insert Table (Korean 60yrs)
    • Curriculum development (1963)
    • Specialized Technical High School with Mechanical focus
    • Increase Investment and use loan programs (ICA, IDA, ADB, World Bank)
  • Expand the Technical programs in Jr. Tech College and Universities
  • System Development
    • National Technical Qualification and Certification system (1974)
    • Establish KRIVET: Korean Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training
    • Recognize Corporate training program as degree certificate program
evolution of technical vocational education training23
Evolution of Technical-Vocational Education & Training

Identity of Technical-Vocational High Schools questioned : 1990’s

  • Weak Incentive system of semi-skilled job (Pay, promotions, working conditions)
  • Less opportunities for occupational growth, Life-long learning and HRD
  • Directions for development of VH, not clear
  • Students preference higher education to vocational high school
evolution of technical vocational education training24
Evolution of Technical-Vocational Education & Training

Evaluation Remarks on TVET in Korea

  • Technical-Vocational High Schools
    • Remarkable contribution in 1960’s-1970’s
    • As Korean economy utilizes new technologies, T-V high schools face questioning of identity
  • Jr. Technical Colleges and Science-Engineering programs of Universities play important roles of HRD in 1980’s-2000
  • TV High school: vacancy rate(12%), drop-out(5%), Advance to Tertiary(50%)
evolution of technical vocational education training25
Evolution of Technical-Vocational Education & Training

Evaluation Remarks on TVET in Korea

  • New Perspectives needed for HRD through Life-Long-Learning(LLL) at Individual and Institutional level
    • Individual level:
      • developing growth-capacities
      • HRD through Life-long learning
      • Upgrade qualification & Certification
      • Career-development path
    • Institutional Level:
      • Developing Relevance, Quality, Competitiveness, Market control model
      • Use Public Support in the Voucher Form
evolution of technical vocational education training26
Evolution of Technical-Vocational Education & Training

Evaluation Remarks on TVET in Korea

  • New Policy tasks emerged
    • Upgrade and transform vocational high schools into “Diversified-specialized Elite Vocational Schools”
    • Strengthening functional relationship among general high schools, vocational high schools and Jr. Technical Colleges
    • Develop “Private technical institutes” and OJT Centers in corporations as specialized technical institute
development of factors determining the quality of education factors

Quantity

B

A

Quality

Ⅳ. Development ofFactors determining the Quality of Education - Factors

(1) Trade-off between quantity expansion and quality maintenance

  • Resource Constraints
  • Unit cost → Low cost approach increase the Quantity
  • Cost Missing learning(A) > Cost caused with poor quality(B)
  • Stepwise approach
development of factors determining the quality of education factors28
Ⅳ. Development ofFactors determining the Quality of Education - Factors

(2) Teacher Training

  • We upgraded Elementary school teacher training program step by step
    • Normal High School + Temporary training institute
    • 2 Years Teachers College (1962)
    • 4 Years Teachers College (1982)
  • Some Concerns Affecting the performance of Teachers
    • Teaching Job is the most attractive job
    • Union of teachers’ influence on policy matter
    • Professional development of Teachers: Empowerment, Job Enrichment
development of factors determining the quality of education factors29
Ⅳ. Development ofFactors determining the Quality of Education - Factors

(3) Development and Effective use of Textbooks

  • During Korean War and Reconstruction Period(1950-60), Textbook printed with UNKRA assistance low quality and free distribution
  • Even Compulsory education, parents pay textbooks
  • ‘Free of charge’ policy extended from low income areas and group of students to all gradually.
development of factors determining the quality of education factors30
Ⅳ. Development ofFactors determining the Quality of Education - Factors

(5) Role of ICT

  • E-learning system plays very important role in self-directed learning
    • Provide alternative ‘low-cost’ private tutoring to students who cannot attend high quality cramming institute in Seoul
    • E-learning system video program on demand connected with Education TV/ Internet
  • On the Job Training/ ‘Credue’ the largest e-learning training company
development of factors determining the quality of education factors31

(unit: billion won, %)

Government budget(A)1)

MOE budget(B)2)

B/A

Total public educational expenditures

Ratio to GDP

1950

0.2

0.1

5.7

1955

28

2

9.4

9.50

1960

42

6

15.2

1965

95

15

16.2

-

-

1970

446

78

17.6

-

-

1975

1,587

228

14.4

-

-

1980

5,804

1,099

18.9

2,732

5.6

1985

12,275

2,492

19.9

4,600

5.5

1990

22,689

5,062

22.3

8,524

4.6

1995

54,845

12,496

22.8

19,215

4.8

2000

93,937

19,172

20.4

31,087

5.4

2005

134,370

27,982

20.8

49,525

6.2

Ⅳ. Development ofFactors determining the Quality of Education - Factors
  • Government Budget vs MOE Budget
development of factors determining the quality of education factors32
Ⅳ. Development ofFactors determining the Quality of Education - Factors

(6) Financing Education

  • Household contribution to Education Financing: Tuition and Fees
  • In 2005, Public expenditure on Education
    • From Government 27,982 (Billion won)
    • Household Tuition 21,000 (42.2%)
    • Total 49,982 Billion
development of factors determining the quality of education factors33

Primary

Middle

High

(Unit $ based on PPP)

Salary(A)

43,952

43,800

43,800

GNI(B)

10,841

A/B

4.05

4.04

4.04

Ⅳ. Development ofFactors determining the Quality of Education - Factors

(6) Financing Education

  • Ratio of Teachers Salaries with 15 years experience in 2000 to per capita GDI
development of factors determining the quality of education factors34

(Unit $ based on PPP)

Korea

US

Japan

Finland

Elementary Ed

3,155

6,995

5,507

4,317

Secondary Ed

4,069

8,855

6,266

6,094

Higher Ed

6,118

20,358

10,914

8,244

Ⅳ. Development ofFactors determining the Quality of Education - Factors

(6) Financing Education

  • Per Capita Cost of Public Expenditure on Education(2000)
institutional aspects
Institutional Aspects
  • As a graduate of ‘Normal High School’ and elementary school teacher, his commitment and support to:
    • Expanding compulsory education
    • Vocational technical education and training
    • “Special schools and classroom” established in industrial centers for working youth
    • Extension compulsory education to Middle school (in the context of comparison between South and North Korea, which introduced 11 years compulsory education in 1971)
institutional aspects36
Institutional Aspects

(2) Roles of R&D Institute in Educational Development

  • Established national R&D Center to develop knowledge base for national development in 1970s
    • KDI: Korea Development Institute
    • KIST: Korea Institute of Science and Technology
    • KEDI: Korean Educational Development Institute
  • In Education
    • KEDI: Educational development
    • KICE: Curriculum and Evaluation
    • KRIVET: Vocational Education and Training
    • KERIS: Educational Research and Information services
  • Major Functions
    • R&D, Planning, Development Projects, Evaluation
current educational issues
Ⅴ. Current Educational Issues
  • Human Qualities Required in Knowledge Based Society
    • High Level Cognitive Process
    • Self-Control, Responsibility, Independency
    • Creativity
    • Self-Directed Learning Capability
    • Voluntary Initiatives → Individuality
    • Intrinsic values and Social capital development
current educational issues38
Ⅴ. Current Educational Issues
  • Policy Shift
    • Transition Stage in 1990's: Search for New Vision of Educational Ideals, New Priority & New Strategies
    • Policy Shift in the governance of educational system – proposed by the Presidential Commission for Educational Reform (PCER)

▪ From Quality to quantity

      • From Administrative accountability to Performance based accountability
      • From Bureaucratic regulation and control to Autonomy
      • From professional control, democratic control to market control
      • From Equality to Equality + Excellence
      • From Provider to Consumer orientation
current educational issues39

Performance-Based

Accountability:

Undefined Performance?

Choice:

Charter Schools

Korean Model(?)

Top Down Change

Policy-Program

- National Curriculum

- Centralized Mgt.

Autonomy:

Bottom-Up Change

- Program (Magnet)

- Personnel

- Budget

Assignment

HEP (Korea)

Busing (US)

Procedural

Administrative

Accountability

Ⅴ. Current Educational Issues
  • New policy framework with choice, accountability, and autonomy
conclusion
Ⅴ. Conclusion
  • Korean Model of Expanding Access with
    • Low-cost approach
    • ‘Bottom-up’ approach
    • Egalitarian approach
  • Has recommendable strategic points.
  • Economic growth provide stable financial resources for Educational development.
conclusion41
Ⅴ. Conclusion
  • Quality of High School Education has to be re-examined
    • Concept of authentic achievement to be developed
    • Core competences to be defined: Core in Diversity
    • Development of specialized Elite vocational education institute:
      • GH → include Vocational Component
      • VH → includeGeneral Foundation
    • Selection system for admission to Higher Education to be developed
      • Student’s learning portfolio
      • University’s autonomy of defining the selection criteria